A Taiwanese Deming Circle (1964-2008)
《1950 年戴明博士對日本高階經營者演講》 53
品管九講 譯者序言（劉振） 64
品管九講 品質管制與企業發展（小柳賢一） 67
導言 （鍾漢清） 91
鳥瞰 Lean/Six Sigma 運動 （1979-2008） （鍾漢清） 128
戴明博士到 HP，團隊合作（鍾漢清） 172
2008 年東海戴明學者講座 185
尾聲 Epilog 2008 年戴明淵博知識系統之旅 275
東海大學和 英國 Essex 大學的點滴 288
從東海第七宿舍讀司馬賀先生談 30 年的緣份 294
慶祝東海 IE 創立四十年 鍾漢清 297
前進英國省錢大作戰 - Less $ can be more 300
劉振老師紀念獎 Liu Cheng Award 328
紀念 吳玉印（Yuin Wu）老師 330
陳勝年老師 (故) 教過我行銷學 大四 1974-75
楊維哲 談所謂標準化 科學月刊十三卷八期 p.45
讓我想起他弟弟楊維禎 教過 我們 作業研究
陳其寬老師CHEN Chi-Kwan 的陰陽2 彩墨紙 30*546 cm 1985
參考 "法國龐畢度中心暨國立現代美術館工業創意中心副館長、世外桃源—龐畢度中心收藏展策展人戴迪亞．歐登傑Didier OTTINGER先生主講"
((((*1983年建館至今，典藏作 品件數已達四千餘件。集合本館研究人員選出台灣美術史上具指標性意義的34件經典作品，策劃「25年典藏精粹」典藏常設展，將依據藝術史發展脈絡，以及不 同媒材對應關係，將展場區分為7個各具台灣美術發展變貌的空間，以呈現台灣藝壇因應各類文化衝擊所煥發的人文精神及在地特色。
「世外桃源」展以古羅馬詩人所描述的田園牧歌般恬靜生活為主題，展出法國龐畢度中心所典藏的二十世紀重量級現代藝術作品，內容囊括畢卡索、馬諦斯、 布拉克、波納爾、夏卡爾、杜布菲、克利、布紐爾等大師之素描、油畫、錄像、裝置等創作形式，總計約有八十件，其中更包括龐畢度中心難得出借的重要典藏作 品。本展覽受古羅馬文學中的詩歌啟發，呼應法國古典主義畫家普桑筆下「阿卡迪亞牧人」對於生之喜悅與死亡的詮釋，延伸出十個子題，更進一步闡釋畫面中豐饒 而合諧的感受、狂歡式的感官刺激，以及對於世事無常、浮華虛幻的辯證與思考，以嚴謹的主題論述，提綱挈領的方式，精采呈現現代藝術之精華。))))
Lean principles are the tenets of the Toyota Production System known in manufacturing as TPS. Do they help in service contexts, too? HBS doctoral student Bradley R. Staats and Professor David M. Upton put lean principles to the test at a large Indian software vendor, and saw improvement in problem solving, coordination, and standardization of work. Their working paper, newly revised, is titled "Lean Principles, Learning, and Software Production: Evidence from Indian Software Services" [PDF].
2009年4月22日，東京都内でソフトウエア開発のイベント「アジャイル ジャパン 2009」が開催された。基調講演には「リーン開発」の専門家であるメアリー・ポッペンディーク氏が登壇（写真1）。製造業の生産管理分野では昔から生産性と品質の向上に「人間性の尊重」が重要であるとされていることを確認しながら，ソフトウエア開発においても同じように人間性の尊重が重要であることを指摘した。
次に，戦後に大野耐一氏が体系化したトヨタ生産方式（TPS）を採り上げた。「TPSには，まさにソフトウエア開発の現場を改善するためのヒント が数多く盛り込まれている」（ポッペンディーク氏）。その一つが「標準」だという。標準は常に可変であること，現場が自主的に標準を定め自主的に変えられ ること，策定時から変更点がない標準には意味がないことなど，大野耐一氏の言葉を引用。ソフトウエア開発の現場で採り入れたいエッセンスをあらためて確認 した。
ポッペンディーク氏は，工場の生産管理で培われた理論を引きつつ，リーダーに求められる資質や能力についても触れた。まず挙げたのは，部下に自己 の能力をフルに発揮できる環境を与えることや権限委譲の重要性である。「現場が自分で考え，自分で判断し行動できる環境が，高い生産性と品質につなが る」（ポッペンディーク氏）。
ただ，ポッペンディーク氏の主張は，企業や組織全体の方向性を無視するわけではない。アジャイル ジャパン 2009の実行委員長である平鍋健児氏（チェンジビジョン社長，写真2）は，「リーン開発におけるリーダーのスタイルは，『一緒に考えよう』の一言にまとめられる」と補足する。
「顧客の求める価値」と「会社の繁栄」の両方に貢献するように整合させるのがリーダーの役目であり，それを全うするようなシステムを作るべきとい うのがその主旨だ。「今やっている仕事が顧客と組織全体のメリットにつながっているのかを常に考えることと，現場や一人ひとりの主体性を重視することを両 立させるのが，リーン開発におけるリーダーの理想のスタイルだ」（平鍋氏）。
Taguchi Quality Engineering Handbook edited by Taguchi, Wu, et al
德语媒体 | 2009.04.23
書寄忠樸（2007年7月28日） 五年？ 其實 我們歷經多少五年了。 詩人Yeats的墓碑, “Cast a cold eye / On life, on death” 生死，能夠冷眼相看（不厭）嗎？ 你那顆溫暖的心已煙消雲散了嗎？ 五年前，一干人參加市立殯儀館的告別，到我這兒小坐 大家都在嘆息你這樣人才的消亡…… 園內的老桑樹 葉子還是在盛夏更新五番 教堂（真理堂）已聳立 你一定沒讀過類似的唐詩： 「聞僧說真理，煩惱自然輕。」（唐˙方干˙遊竹林寺詩） 所以大肚山的「大智慧」也罷， 莫非 神的一聲嘆息…… 你會再飛往西雅圖去品味那Starbucks的體驗嗎？ 多可惜 台灣的書市一樣熱鬧 但是 愛書人少了一位 不變的 也許是日本還敬佩你寫過書摘的那巨人 你肯定會參加我們縱談精實和六標準差 我會說 成事在人 我們十年前桃園中信的那場戴明紀念研習會 也不差 許多經驗 無法累積 ASQ的 QP暢談DOE的最近發展(2006) 你會遙想那些電腦中模擬嗎？ 我相信這些 都是過眼煙雲 而你肯定 會去紐約 哥倫比亞 會爽朗地開懷大笑 你那「不標準」的人生
Charity shops are sorting and selling record volumes of used household items. While tough economic times may make recycled objects especially popular, Belgium's leading charity shop network says it fears for the future. Report: Nina-Maria Potts
我家隔壁的"真理堂" (這在堂唐朝可能指飼寺廟 現在指 路德宗基督教)
South Korea's economy 2:35 updated Sun, April 19, 2009 CNN's Eunice Yoon talks to South Korea's Finance Minister Yoon Jeung Hyun about the economy. South Korea avoids recession 1:42Good news for South Korea's economy, as CNN's Eunice Yoon explains.
中国南宋思想家。字元晦，号晦庵。徽州婺源（今属江西）人。绍兴十八年（1148）中进士，历 仕高宗、孝宗、光宗、宁宗四朝，庆元六年卒。嘉定二年（1209）诏赐遗表恩泽，谥曰文，寻赠中大夫，特赠宝谟阁直学士。理宗宝庆三年（1227），赠太 师，追封信国公，改徽国公。
Does H.P. Need a Dose of Anarchy?
Palo Alto, Calif.
IT all seems obvious when viewed through hindsight’s pristine lens: Hewlett-Packard didn’t need a reinvention. It just needed some fierce fiscal discipline to transform itself from a bumbling, lost soul into a well-oiled profit machine.
At its core, H.P.’s turnaround works against the natural order of things in Silicon Valley, where people talk about technology first and finances a distant second. The frenetic hunt for the next big thing has helped a select few endure decades of busts and booms, and they have always left it to the bean counters to obsess about the bottom line.
So it took a true outsider, in Mark V. Hurd, to engineer H.P.’s resurrection and to create the world’s largest technology company. Mr. Hurd, hired four years ago in the wake of Carleton S. Fiorina’s tumultuous departure as chief executive, forced a steady, boring diet of performance benchmarks, heavy-handed cost-cutting and data-mining down H.P.’s corporate throat.
“Silicon Valley is not known for creating lean organizations, and he’s as good as we have ever seen,” said Michael S. Malone, a historian who wrote “Bill and Dave,” a book about the company’s renowned co-founders, William Hewlett and David Packard. “He’s taught a lesson in what big-time corporate management looks like.”
But with the most brutal cuts behind it, H.P. faces a fresh set of challenges as the second stage of Mr. Hurd’s tenure begins. Most pressing is widespread concern that Mr. Hurd has built an inflexible, solipsistic giant so obsessed with schematics and data-driven fiscal machinations that it has lost the ability to deliver that prized and perennial Silicon Valley trick: to surprise and astound.
Although H.P. is trying to expand its presence in businesses like personal computers and printers, some critics argue that those markets have little left to give. The company could also use more imaginative thinking to bolster its developing line of software products and services.
In short, what may be missing in the formidable intellectual and strategic artillery that Mr. Hurd brings to bear at H.P. is creative inspiration. Or, as Mr. Malone puts it, “I am not sure Mark has built an H.P. that can go through the natural changes that accompany the technology industry as the company has in the past.”
If you posit this idea to any of the company’s top executives, they’ll dismiss it. H.P. has plenty of room to grow, they say — in printers, computers, software or services — and has a firm grasp of the technology industry’s nature and undulations. If you don’t believe such talk, that’s fine, they say — just look at the numbers for any convincing.
“When you hear me talk, I have four quadrants in my head simultaneously,” Mr. Hurd says, outlining a mental tableau that encompasses H.P.’s operations (Quadrant 1), products (Quadrant 2), business and technology trends (Quadrant 3) and competitors (Quadrant 4). Visions of metrics dance in his mind, and he speaks of them with a passion and devotion that has clearly filtered through the ranks — and H.P.’s results.
While that approach also offers a contained, orderly way for Mr. Hurd to tackle his challenges, it isn’t necessarily a recipe for the kind of fertile brainstorming that leads to creative breakthroughs in the tech world.
Steven P. Jobs, the co-founder and chief of Apple, has never discussed quadrants when speaking about products like the iPod and the iPhone, and has dismissed the value of using focus groups to inform design projects. Sometimes consumers need to be shown what they want, Mr. Jobs has said.
MR. HURD, 52, often strums a tabletop like a pianist as he delves into business minutiae, his enthusiasm measured by the steady clack-clacking of his gold wedding band. He also enjoys riffling through a flip chart, tracing and disgorging a panoply of figures with the ease of a symphony conductor. Indeed, his flip chart is so precious to him that it accompanies him on the road.
But for a numbers guy like Mr. Hurd, H.P. is a fantasy land, and the path for navigating it couldn’t be clearer.
“He shows a remarkable familiarity with the balance sheet and amazing depth with numbers,” says Matt Lavallee, the director of technology for the MLS Property Information Network, a real estate service, who talked with Mr. Hurd during a recent customer event. “He’s the most impressive executive I have ever met.”
Thanks to mega-acquisitions and strong growth, H.P. has emerged as the largest buyer of many components that go into computing systems. It buys about one-fifth of Intel’s chips used in PCs and servers, surpassing all rivals. And its purchasing power should increase as the innards of PCs, servers, storage systems and networking gear overlap more and more every year.
H.P. has used its heft as a weapon, playing suppliers off one another, especially during lean times like now, to keep costs as low as possible. Ever to the point, Mr. Hurd says that “if you don’t have scale, and you don’t have leverage, you won’t be able to give the customer what the customer wants.”
In recent years, the company has demonstrated an ability to balance chasing growth with its internal cuts.
Although industry pundits had derided the PC business as a lost cause, H.P. has expanded its computer division sales by $15.6 billion over the last four years, hitting $42.3 billion in total sales last year. During a similar period, computer sales at Dell rose to $35.8 billion, from $35.2 billion.
Just as astonishing, H.P. declared in February that it could shoot past Wall Street’s earnings targets for the full year — at a time when its sales may come in about $18 billion lower than expected because of frozen consumer and corporate spending.
Mr. Hurd attributes this performance to having banged out agreements with suppliers during better days and the company’s ability to turn far-flung corporate dials to fine-tune operations when customers suddenly stop buying.
His own intensity adds to the corporate mojo. Athletic and tightly focused, he comes from a relatively privileged background. His father attended Yale, and his mother, the daughter of a Park Avenue doctor, was introduced to society at a dinner at the Waldorf-Astoria. Growing up in New York and then Miami, he attended college preparatory schools and went to Baylor University in Waco, Tex., on a tennis scholarship.
“He had long hair, wore tennis shorts and was a religious devotee of the courts," says Max Sandlin, a former congressman from Texas, who was president of Mr. Hurd’s fraternity. “At the time, most of us would have thought Mark more likely to be the next Jimmy Connors than the C.E.O. of H.P.”
After Baylor, Mr. Hurd joined NCR, a quiet maker of cash-register equipment and automated teller machines, based in Dayton, Ohio. While not a self-made man in the classic sense, he is by all accounts a self-made business mind who manufactured his own luck and turned himself into a star at NCR, and over the course of 25 years excelled in a number of jobs, including running NCR’s flashiest division, a database unit called Teradata.
Mr. Hurd flourished at Teradata, creating a fast-growing business within NCR that caught executives’ attention and ultimately led to his promotion as chief of the entire company. More important, he evolved during those years into a manager both feared and admired for his command of numbers.
“Mark provided a level of stability and leadership that inspired people,” says Jim Murphy, who spent more than a decade at Teradata in sales. “He is the kind of guy you were willing to follow despite the pressure that comes with his constant drive to focus on metrics.”
That drive played out on the basketball and tennis courts, as well, where Mr. Hurd made it clear that he was always out to win. “He is a vicious athlete and competitor,” Mr. Murphy says. “He would get pretty hot-headed and jaw with people.”
At H.P., Mr. Hurd’s reputation for having a quick mind and a quick temper has only grown. It’s common for executives to recount stories about his noticing a lowered forecast in a presentation, slamming his briefing materials down and, with an ever-present salty tongue, ordering that the situation be fixed before their next meeting.
For his part, Mr. Hurd is not about to give up his blunt style. “I go all over the place,” he says. “I do like the ability to go around the company at different levels to find the people that have the actual answers to the question.”
MR. HURD’S zeal has had a controversial reception at one of his company’s most admired divisions, H.P. Labs. Historically, the unit has been the most freewheeling part of the company, charged with creating new businesses out of thin air. Over the years, the products coming out of the labs have revitalized the company’s business during lulls.
Since Mr. Hurd arrived, H.P. Labs has whittled down the number of projects it tackles at any given time to 30, from about 150. Prith Banerjee, the director of H.P. Labs, has dismissed the castoffs as interesting science projects and championed the survivors as big bets with the most commercial potential.
Yet the often idiosyncratic researchers now find themselves writing up business plans and dealing directly with customers rather than funneling their ideas out to people more experienced in such matters.
For example, Carl Taussig, who runs H.P.’s Information Surfaces Lab, a part of H.P. Labs, has teamed with the Army, Arizona State University, DuPont Teijin Films and E Ink to produce flexible display technology that might be used like electronic paper or to create cheaper screens in mobile devices.
“H.P. Labs has a bigger burden now in creating a path toward commercialization,” Mr. Taussig said. “It’s more work, and it’s different work.”
But H.P.’s businesslike approach to research and curtailed money for the labs have former employees concerned about the company’s future. “I think they are seriously underspending on research and development,” says Charles H. House, who worked at H.P. for 29 years, overseeing the creation of 12 product lines. “It seems to me that betting on new areas is a struggle for them.”
Shane Robison, the company’s chief strategy and technology officer, argues that few companies can match the breadth of its research, in areas as varied as printing systems and data mining. Some of the most impressive work has been in nanotechnology and optics, where engineers do nothing less than manipulate light to move data around computers at ground-breaking speeds.
“This is fundamental, breakthrough stuff,” Mr. Robison says. He later added, “It’s just goofy to get into a debate about whether you’re spending enough money.”
A believer in long-term planning, Mr. Hurd says the company still has plenty to show the world. “You would not want to short H.P. on its ability to innovate,” he says.
Its biggest bets surround the plain-vanilla business of providing technology infrastructure to clients. H.P. believes that customers want to buy as much of those products and services from one company as possible — a move that is, yes, data-driven.
H.P. expects the amount of information produced by companies to keep rising along with their desire to analyze that data. More data means more servers, storage and networking gear — and, for as long as companies print paper records of their computing results — plenty of purchases of H.P.’s expensive printer ink.
At the heart of the company’s infrastructure play is Electronic Data Systems, the technology services company it acquired last year that manages customers’ data center operations. H.P. is laying off tens of thousands of employees as it tries to revivify the company and make it an integral part of its offerings to corporate customers.
But critics, most notably I.B.M., castigate H.P. as more or less the dull grunt of the tech world that has doubled down on humdrum, low-profit businesses. If years of price wars for parts and infrastructure services ensue, H.P. will face serious pressure on the cost structure it has worked so hard to achieve.
“There are still lots of opportunities for H.P. to cut costs out, but at some point its ability to do that at the rate of the last few years certainly diminishes,” said A. M. Sacconaghi, a technology analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Company.
Because Mr. Hurd has so ably rationalized the company’s cost structure, he now has to prove that he can foster a culture capable of building a second wave of growth — which zeroes back in on the creativity question.
In that regard, the future looks murky. Current and former employees complain that Mr. Hurd has put so much pressure on the organization that the willingness to take risks has faded. Quarterly business unit reviews with Mr. Hurd are known to be intense and probing and to inspire plenty of worry.
Adding to this is a fear that morale has declined because of benefits cuts and a pay-for-performance rewards structure that creates deep fissures between the haves and the have-nots. Mr. Hurd faced similar criticisms at NCR.
“I am not here trying to tell you it’s perfect,” he says, adding that workers complain about bureaucracy and the process-driven practices creeping into their jobs. “I think at the end of the day all these things come with a price.”
Mr. Hurd, however, contends that internal surveys provide a more accurate view of the company than scattered anecdotes and reveal a satisfied work force. The company’s strong, consistent financial performance has restored its luster as a Silicon Valley icon and imbued employees with pride, he says.
“There is a tremendous attraction for the people to the scale, the opportunity, the entrepreneurship,” he says. “For us, it is a big deal to attract talent that can flourish in an environment like this and take advantage of our scale without it becoming an issue for them.”
A COMPANY of 321,000 people can move only so nimbly, and H.P. has fallen behind in some of the most promising parts of the market.
It arrived late with a line of netbooks, the low-cost, compact laptops that have taken the world by storm, opening doors for its rival Acer. And, over the last few years, a wide variety of online services has captured the attention of consumers and businesses, but H.P. has struggled to make its name synonymous with so-called cloud computing.
Despite talking so much about data and the powers of information analysis, the company trails rivals like I.B.M. and Oracle when it comes to building the most sophisticated business software.
Another glaring weakness resides on the gadget front, where the company concedes an innovation lapse and continues to sell a relatively unpopular smartphone. (H.P. promises that better phones are in the pipeline.)
With its software gurus, its newfound penchant for design and its deep ties to retailers, H.P. might have been expected to disrupt the cellphone market with new devices or even to concoct an electronic book reader that would complement its printer business. Instead, it’s Apple and Amazon that built vibrant new businesses around such products.
“In spite of the fact that there are things we could always do a better job on, innovating and so forth, I don’t think we have ever felt stronger about our portfolio of products and services and our opportunity to serve the market,” Mr. Hurd says. “I don’t think we think we’re confused about what the market wants.”
To H.P.’s credit, it read the PC market just right in recent years, capitalizing on a surge in laptops and retail sales. It revamped the look of its products, developed a distinctive ad campaign and began to assert more independence.
For example, the company built a fanciful laptop in tandem with the fashion designer Vivienne Tam; it looks as much like a purse as a computer. And H.P.’s most daring move may have come with its TouchSmart software that lets people manipulate items on their computer screens with their fingers, while also adding a distinct look and feel to the company’s gear.
On the printing side, the company feels poised to capitalize on another megatrend: a shift to digital presses for industrial jobs like making magazines and labels. Every percentage point of additional share in this market translates into immense profits for H.P., which pours research and development dollars into proprietary ink.
Mr. Hurd points again and again to the company’s scale and diversity as its major advantages.
Companies like I.B.M. and Dell have also emerged as the largest buyers of components during different eras, says Intel’s chief executive, Paul S. Otellini. Typically, the companies have started to struggle just as their buying heft approaches that of H.P., when gains prove tougher to come by and unexpected, nimble competitors emerge. That said, the tech industry has never encountered a giant the size of H.P.
“I do think Mark has carved out a unique opportunity that comes from selling everything from servers to phones,” Mr. Otellini says.
In the end, Mr. Hurd says he’s not worried about his image as a numbers mercenary and refuses to fret about how others view his approach as H.P. tries to innovate its way toward growth.
“When I was at Teradata, I got called a growth guy. And then when I became C.E.O. of the whole company, I got called a cost-cutter,” Mr. Hurd says. “Then, I came to H.P. and became an operations guy.“To be very blunt, I am not really that concerned with what labels get associated with somebody. I know we have a whole bunch of things to get done.”