2/24 Harold Hotelling 給印度政府備忘錄說明 "統計理論和技術的研究"之本質和重要性
為 Deming 著的 Out of the Crisis 第16章引為題詞
Hotelling, H. (1940). The teaching of statistics, Ann. Math. Statist., 11, 457-470.
1942年（民31年）WED was engaged by the U.S. Army as a consultant to set up courses in SQC for engineers...
○JMA, Japan Management Association 成立http://www.jma.or.jp/
Deming developed the sampling techniques that were used for the first time during the 1940 U.S. Census. During World War II, Deming was a member of the five-man Emergency Technical Committee. He worked with H.F. Dodge, A.G. Ashcroft, Leslie E. Simon, R.E. Wareham, and John Gaillard in the compilation of the American War Standards (American Standards Association ZI.1-3 published in 1942) and taught statistical process control (SPC) techniques to workers engaged in wartime production.
○ Statistical Adjustment of Data, John Wiley and Sons, 1943, Dover 1964. by W. Edwards Deming:Demming (1943) 說：「蒐集數據的目的是為了行動」。
◎ Sample Design in Business Research, John Wiley and Sons, 1960. by W. Edwards Deming:
Some Principles of the Shewhart Methods of Quality Control, Mechanical Engineering, vol.66, pp.173-177, March, 1944
○ JSA, Japan Standards association 成立
1946-48 a "blue funk period".
◎JUSE 成立JUSE is the telegraphic code for the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering, Tokyo.
JUSE was established in May 1946 and authorized as the foundation of a juridical body by the Science and Technology Agency (reformed Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of Japanese Government.
The objective of JUSE is to promote systematic studies needed for the advancement of science and technology, whereupon to contribute to the development of culture and industry.
The field of science and technology that JUSE has been involved in since its establishment belongs to the Soft Technology where the mathematical and statistical methods can be applied to the corporate management. Especially, the quality control has been the primary subject of JUSE and great efforts have been bent to the development and dissemination of the technology. Today, JUSE is widely known in and out the country as a "Center of Quality Control in Japan". JUSE has managed the Deming Prize, which has been well known in the field of the Total Quality Management. Moreover, we are a member of the sponsor group of the Campaign "Quality Month" in November in Japan. During recent years, more than 20,000 people including 500 of senior managers from enterprises have been taking part in our Education and Training Courses in the fields below every year that is one of our main activities.
- Quality Management, QC Circle
- Reliability Engineering
- Multivariate Analysis, Design of Experiment
- Marketing Analysis, Sensory Evaluation, Products Liability
- ISO Management System(QMS, EMS), OHSMS, ISMS and others.
○ Homer M. Sarason 到日本聯軍統率總部的民用通信部（CCS-SCAP）Civil Communication Section- Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers 任職至1950，開過 CCS管理研討會。事蹟參考：Louis E. Schultz作 Profiles in Quality: Learning from the Masters『品質群像: 向品管大師學習』劉秋枝譯，寂天文化事業有限公司，1999。
Eugene L. Grant, Professor of Economics of Engineering at Stanford, was a
profound scholar, an inspiring teacher, a mentor who influenced the careers of
many both in academia and industry, an excellent writer, a distinguished
engineer, and a pioneer in engineering education. He is well known worldwide
for his textbooks Principles of Engineering Economy, first published in 1930 and
now in its eighth edition (1990, co-authored with W. G. Ireson and Richard
Leavenworth) and Statistical Quality Control, first published in 1946 and now in
its seventh edition (1996, co-authored with Richard Leavenworth).
Consultant in research and in industry 1946-93
Professor of Statistics, Graduate School of Business Administration, New York University 1946-93Statistician, Allied Mission to Observe the Greek Elections, January-April 1946; July-October 1946 Consultant
* Morris H. Hansen and William N. Hurwitz, "The problem of nonresponse in sample-surveys," J. Amer. Statist. Ass., vol. 41, 1946: pp. 517-529
|on Page 241:|
|"... t I learned the use of this X-pattern at the Alfred Politz Research, Inc., New York, about 1946. An example of a map and list of portions, with selection of I portion, ..."|
○ Henry Ford過世(1863−1947年)
◎ 統計品管專家W．愛德華．戴明由美國政府（為S. A. Rice領島隊的統計任務團成員）派來日本，任務是協助日本作1951年人口/經濟調查。Deming自言與農業部、住屋建設、就業部連絡，也認識許多統計學家和經濟學家。Delegate from the A.A.A.S. to the Indian Science Congress, New Delhi, January 1947
Adviser in sampling techniques to the Supreme Command of the Allied Powers, Tokyo, 1947 and 1950
Member of the United Nations Sub-Commission on Statistical Sampling, 1947-52
HC emailed to Prof. Kerridge, 2006
WED points out in "probability as a guide for action" all drug-testing
is done on judgement samples. But from the reference you give it shows
that Deming was the first to make the distinction clear.
In a way, this is related to Shewhart's distinction between pure and
applied science. In the early days of statistical theory, applied
science was regarded as inferior. R A Fisher, for example, treated pure
science as the only real science, which is absurd when you consider his
contributions to Agriculture. But this was the academic snobbery of the
time - which is still powerful.
In pure science all samples are judgement samples, because you can
never enumerate the problems that will be met in the future. R A Fisher
was aware of this, and always spoke of sampling from a "Hypothetical
infinite population". This is clearly not dealing with an actual, known
population, as in all enumerative studies.
Professor W. Edwards Deming Professor of Statistics New York University 1947- 1993
.Morris Hansen, "The sampling of human populations," Proceedings of the International Statistical Institute, Washington, 1947.
FORMOSA KILLINGS ARE PUT AT 10,000; Foreigners Say the Chinese Slaughtered Demonstrators Without Provocation
By TILLMAN DURDINSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.
March 29, 1947, Saturday
Page 6, 554 words
NANKING, March 28 -- Foreigners who have just returned to China from Formosa corroborate reports of wholesale slaughter by Chinese troops and police during anti-Government demonstrations a month ago. [ END OF FIRST PARAGRAPH ]
The history of modern photography is usually traced back to the first
chemical picture ever taken back in 1827. Fast forward more than a hundred
years and the Polaroid Corporation unveiled the landmark instant film
camera, commercially released in 1947.
The DW-WORLD Article
Hotelling, H., Bartky, W. Deming, W.E.,Friedman, M., Hoel, P.(1948). The Teaching of
Statistics, A Report of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics Committee on the
Teaching of Statistics, Ann. Math. Stat. 19, 95-115
The Western powers pledge cooperation as Moscow breaks the U.S. nuclear monopoly and communists take over China.
Hotelling, H. (1949). The place of statistics in the university, Proc. of the
Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probbability, 21-49,
Press.#63 Observations on the 1946 elections in Greece
by Deming, Jessen, Kempthorne, Daly, Amer. Sociological Rev., vol.14, 1949: pp.11-16
1949年博士協助日本人口普查局準備 設計 1950年 10月的調查東京和大阪之人口
|31.||on Page 267:|
|"... my privilege to be there during the preceding summer, and to assist in the design of a sample-tabulation of the complete census. The aim was to provide advance tabulations of a number of important characteristics of the people, not for small areas, ..."|
第 216 頁
7 (July 1952): 84-89; JS Pairo, "Using ratio-delay studies to set allowance," Factory 106, no. 10 (October 1943): 94. ...
第 447 頁
... Alexander M. Mood, "On the dependence of sampling inspection plans upon population distributions," Annals of Mathematical Statistics 14 (1943): 415-425. ...
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... 1943 ...
plans upon population distributions," Annals of Mathematical Statistics 14 (1943): 415^25. Joyce Orsini, "Simple rule to reduc
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... had acquired appreciation for the contribution to quality and productivity that the Shewhart methods might make to Japanese industry. The time was 1948 ...