「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2010年9月29日 星期三

From Newton's Sleep by Joseph Vining

第2-3次讀From Newton's Sleep by Joseph Vining

有幾次參考或推薦 HERB SIMON 的人工智能一書 不過索引查不到
我讀完 epigram (可從Amazon 網站讀 ) 等之後 重讀 William Blake 的書.....


From Newton's Sleep
Joseph Vining

Paper | 1996 | This edition is out of print | ISBN13: 978-0-691-02924-5
416 pp. | 5 x 8 | 1 halftone
Cloth | 1994 | This edition is out of print | ISBN13: 978-0-691-03487-4
368 pp. | 5 x 8 | 1 illus.

Reviews | Table of Contents

What does the presence of law say of the beliefs of individuals in a society--their actual beliefs--about language, themselves, the world around them?

In a strikingly original work intended not only for practicing lawyers but for anyone interested in the modern dilemma of the loss of meaning, Joseph Vining invites us to reconsider law as a unique form of thought, inseparably connected to everything in the world that makes up human identity. Oliver Wendell Holmes asserted at the end of the nineteenth century that human law is ultimately a phenomenon in quantitative relations to its causes and effects, and many have been left with an impression of law as a set of processes and rules. Vining takes issue with this and with various reductionist attempts in scientific thought today to express the universe in a single mathematical description of forces, as well as with post-structuralist speculation that there are no valid truth claims, and that human inter-action can be reduced to analysis of power relationships. Law, he argues, is an independent discourse, not reducible to any other, that exists only in human interaction and reflects continuing human worth. Vining's search to reinstate the spiritual dimension in public discourse brings him head-on with a wide array of powerful academic forces: linguistics theory, political science, the new historicism, and the traditional teaching of law.

This book consists of a collection of what Vining calls "amplifications" of the implied text of the law--impressions, commentaries, vignettes, poems, and dialogues--which illustrate aspects of conventional legal language and logic, and the subjects legal practice regularly deals with, such as promises, death, and crime. Throughout we see that law reaches deeply into the way we know ourselves and other persons, all of whom speak through law as law connects language to person and person to action. The texts generated by legal method constitute the living record of social acquaintance and contest, speaking across cultures and across centuries. It is the close reading of legal texts and contexts, Vining argues, that provides the present source of the transcendental in modern secular life. But unlike the other academic arts of interpretation, law alone is directly connected with the most real, the most particular and, at the same time, the most universal facts of social life.

From Newton's Sleep poses ultimate questions for a century that now approaches its end, casts doubt on certainties past and present, and creates new grounds for skepticism and conviction. The fragmentary form of the book mirrors its subject. It is intended to be picked up and read as occasion allows, especially at evening, by lawyers and all their fellow nonlawyers.


"A surprisingly fresh voice. . . states considerations with which scholars of the law, even busy practitioners with more immediate concerns, should now and then grapple."--Christopher C. Faille, The Federal Lawyer

"Clearly an important contribution to the literature of the concept of law."--The Sunday Telegraph

"[Vining] has no simple thesis, but the message of the book can be communicated this way: Law is basic to human life, connecting thought to action and action to the world. And we ignore this fact at our peril. . . . Vining is a subtle, occasionally profound thinker and he displays an impressive breadth of cultural and scholarly interest. . . . [From Newton's Sleep] is right in insight and written with obvious passion. Where you do not agree you will nevertheless be deeply challenged."--Globe and Mail


"This original book. . . finds surprising treasures hidden in lawyers' ways of knowing."--Mary Ann Glendon, Harvard Law School

"Joseph Vining's voice is a strong and different one--one that has the power to break the dominant patterns of jurisprudence. . . . His meditative illustrations, which are aimed at establishing that law is a response to persons, are the work of a lawyer, drawn from a lawyer's practice. Vining conveys with conviction and passion what all lawyers assume in order to do their work. Lawyers at any level of practice will profit from reading this book."--John T. Noonan, Jr., U.S. Circuit Judge

"From Newton's Sleep is one of the most important books ever written about law as a practice that involves whole persons and engages the emotions, imagination, and spirit as well as the mind. It is--what is even rarer--a wise book, with much to teach lawyers about their profession and all of us about how to live humanely in our world.... A superb accomplishment."--H. Jefferson Powell, Duke University


Contents of Sections
Sect. IIntroductory1
Sect. IIThe Life of Forms: On the Language of Legal Thought51
Sect. IIIThe Detail and the Whole: On the Logic of Legal Thought93
Sect. IVPresent Meaning: On the Personal in Legal Thought163
Sect. VThe Pull of the Real: On the Active in Legal Thought211
Sect. VIFull Circle: On the Force of Legal Thought237
Sect. VIIThe Expression of Responsibility: On the Organizational in Legal Thought283
Sect. VIIIBeyond Words: On the Temporal in Legal Thought327

A Note on Form357

References and Acknowledgments359


From Newton's Sleep [Paperback]

Joseph Vining (Author)

From Scientific American
From Newton's Sleep is one of the most important books ever written about law as a practice that involves whole persons and engages the emotions, imagination, and spirit as well as the mind. It is what is even rarer a wise book, with much to teach lawyers about their profession and all of us about how to live humanely in our world.... A superb accomplishment.


This original book by distinguished Michigan legal scholar Joseph Vining finds surprising treasures hidden in lawyers' ways of knowing.... He challenges with equal vigor the widely held notions that law can be reduced to processes and rules, or to power relations, or to meaningless signs and marks. -- Mary Ann Glendon, Harvard Law School

[Vining] has no simple thesis, but the message of the book can be communicated this way: Law is basic to human life, connecting thought to action and action to the world. And we ignore this fact at our peril. . . . Vining is a subtle, occasionally profound thinker and he displays an impressive breadth of cultural and scholarly interest. . . . [From Newton's Sleep] is right in insight and written with obvious passion. Where you do not agree you will nevertheless be deeply challenged. -- Review

2010年9月26日 星期日


新闻报道 | 2010.09.26



卡玛·乌拉(Karma Ura)靠在椅背上。他身着一件不丹传统的长袍、没膝长袜和棕色皮鞋。他的声音很低。看上去,他像是一位内心平衡、谦逊、或许对生活非常满意的人。

乌拉是不丹研究中心主席。自1999年起,他的团队开始研究如何衡量不丹民众的幸福程度,即国民幸福指数。这一想法最早是由不丹已故高僧旺秋 (Jigme Singje Wangchuk)于1980年提出的。但如何衡量幸福呢?乌拉说:"积极的感情状态,比如宽宏、同情以及不经常发怒、沮丧或嫉妒,都能显示人们是否幸 福。倘若你很频繁地发怒和感到沮丧,那显然证明你的精神状态-不论出于什么原因-都不是倾向于幸福的。"

乌拉共研究出72项指标,分为9个目录,以衡量幸福的水平:身体健康、教育、良好的政府管理仅仅是其中的几项。他的研究团队定期评估不丹家庭的问卷 结果。不过他也知道,与国民生产总值相比,国民幸福指数难以准确衡量:"我们现在的方法是把各种不同的指标加在一起,成为一个单一的复合体国民幸福指数, 这个办法并不完美。这只是一种尝试。今后我们会继续改良方法。"

卡玛·乌拉研究出72项衡量幸福的指标Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 卡玛·乌拉研究出72项衡量幸福的指标


卡玛承认,衡量一个国家的国民生产总值也很重要,因为,它是国民幸福指数整体理念中的一部分。只不过,与国民幸福指数相比,国民生产总值只能显示一 个国家在某一时刻所处的状态:"我必须指出一点,幸福不能与短暂的快乐相混淆。幸福更持久,更能带来满足感。让我们扪心自问:如何才能不受误导,认为经济 发展就能带来富足和幸福。我们是否能开发出其它的衡量标准。"

暴力冲突、生态灾难、全球金融与经济危机:这些都是因为追求了错误的价值吗?乌拉表示,采用国民幸福指数的理念,是为一个更平衡的世界做出贡献。因 为幸福是一种普世价值。他指出,"西方世界在反思什么才是良好的经济、良好的生活、良好的政治和政府管理。世界重新追问这些问题的答案。国民幸福指数为这 一辩论提供了一种思路。"


不丹首相廷莱(Jigmi Thinley)日前在联合国大会上就千年发展目标发表讲话,提议把幸福加入千年发展目标中。


作者:Chi Viet Giang 编译:苗子


2010年9月25日 星期六



(Tim Brown設計思考改造世界(Change by Design:How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation), 台北:聯經出版公司2010 pp.227-28)

2010年9月16日 星期四

Lehman insider lashes out at top management, government

An "interesting" case.

Banking | 15.09.2010

Lehman insider lashes out at top management, government

A bank needed to fail in order to push the banking rescue program through the US Senate, Lehman Brothers insider Lawrence McDonald says. His company was the scapegoat.

September 2008 saw the financial crisis reach its apex. Merrill Lynch was sold to Bank of America. Mortgage companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were rescued by the government. And in the early hours of Monday September 15, famed investment bank Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy.

Lawrence McDonald worked as a trading vice president on the third floor of the 158-year-old institution. In 2009 he published an insider’s account of the Lehman failure: "A Colossal Failure of Common Sense: The Inside Story of the Collapse of Lehman Brothers," which has now been translated into German.

Portrait  photo of Lawrence McDonaldBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Lawrence McDonald worked on Lehman Brothers' trading floor

'I watched giants weep'

Two years after the bank's failure, McDonald spoke to Deutsche Welle about the events that took place.

"You remember the days of the summer of 2008 - holding out hope. Hope, hope, hope," he said. "We thought we would be the last Wall Street Bank that was left alone to die. And we thought that right up to the end."

When compiling material for his book, McDonald didn’t just rely on his own memories, but on interviews with his co-workers as well.

"It was like watching giants weep," he said. Many of the people he interviewed had been with the firm for decades, and many had lost a large part of their wealth when the firm went under.

"I sat down with person after person, broken men, broken women. Hearts crushed, lives really thrown in tatters."

Lehman  Brothers signBildunterschrift: The 158-year-old institution took the rap for what many others had done as well, the author says

Harsh criticism of leadership

McDonald argues that it was not the Lehman Brothers employees who were unscrupulous bankers - it was the leadership that ruined the firm.

"Lehman Brothers was never rotten at the core, she was rotten at the head," McDonald said. "Picture in your mind a rocket ship, 3000 feet high: At the top there is a capsule. And in the capsule there are some astronauts from the 1980s. But inside the rocket there is 21st century fuel, 21st century technology, 21st century power."

In other words: the bosses were out of touch. McDonald is particularly critical of former Lehman Brothers CEO Richard Fuld, who he said was never seen on the third floor by traders.

Former  Lehman Brothers CEO Richard FuldBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Ex-Lehman CEO Richard Fuld ignored warnings, McDonald says

"The 31st floor at Lehman Brothers should have been the nerve center of a 750 billion dollar hedge fund, which is what Lehman had become," McDonald said. “They were just consumed with growth, consumed with globalization" and missed any signs that might have shown problems lay ahead.

A fateful moment?

For those on the trading floor, signs that something was wrong were visible as early as 2006. But when an insider tried to inform the bosses of a problem, he was fired a few weeks later, McDonald said.

McDonald blames Fuld for not wanting to hear about problems - not even from then-Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson. He said Paulson, who spent years working at Goldman Sachs as Fuld's competition, tried to warn the Lehman boss at a meeting in the summer of 2008.

"At the dinner Paulson was saying to our CEO, 'Listen, you guys have to reduce risk. We just saved Bear Stearns, this is getting worse, you need to really clean up your act.' And at one point our CEO slammed the fork down on his plate and he said: 'I've been in my seat a lot longer than you were at yours at Goldman Sachs. Don't tell me how to do my job.'"

That is the moment that could have sealed Lehman's fate, McDonald says today.

Drowning - and watching the bubbles

Other banks - including AIG, Bear Stearns and Merill Lynch - invested in the same products and made the same mistakes as Lehman Brothers, McDonald said. When the government saw banking chaos headed its way, it decided to sacrifice one institution in order to get the Senate to pass the planned banking rescue package.

Former  Treasury Secretary Henry PaulsonBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: At a dinner, Henry Paulson tried to warn the CEO"Our secretary Hank Paulson, our government, they took Lehman Brothers' head, they put it under water – and then watched the bubbles," McDonald said.

Today, banks are in better shape than they were two years ago. Their balance sheets are cleaned up, and they carry less risk. "Not because of finance reform, but out of fear," McDonald said.

Two years after the fact, there are still hearings taking place before Congress and investigations meant to shed light on the darkness - and to finger the guilty parties.

But according to McDonald, US efforts to assign blame for the banking system failure haven't gone far enough. Germany has done a better job, he said.

"The SEC has actually been embarrassed because in Germany the CEO of IKB Bank is facing criminal charges,” he said. “It looks like he might go to jail for comments he made on a conference call back in 2007. And in the United States, we had CEOs - including our executives at Lehman Brothers - some of them that did the same thing and nobody is facing jail time. That is wrong."

Author: Miriam Braun (jen)
Editor: Sam Edmonds

A sense of entitlement is all very well – but what about a pay rise?

文中所提的 都不見得好


A sense of entitlement is all very well – but what about a pay rise?

Companies are always on the lookout for cheap ways to reward their employees, and what could be cheaper than a grandiose title or a purely symbolic “employee of the month” award? As the comic-strip character Dilbert’s pointy-haired boss once announced, “I’m promoting you from senior engineer to lead engineer. The pay’s the same but people will disrespect you less.”

企业总是在寻找奖励雇员的廉价方式,有什么能比冠冕堂皇的头衔、或者纯粹只有象征意义 的“月度最佳雇员”奖更廉价呢?正如连环漫画人物呆伯特(Dilbert)梳着尖头发的老板曾经通知他的:“我将把你从高级工程师提为首席工程师。薪水不 变,但人们会更加尊重你。”

Such tactics are not entirely new: more than 50 years ago, the humorist Michael Flanders created a dogmatic cannibal who was “chief assistant to the assistant chief”, and presumably he had a particular organisation man in mind. The Economist’s Schumpeter columnist, meanwhile, notes that in the 1940s the late Senator Robert Byrd held the title “exalted cyclops” in the Ku Klux Klan.

这些手段并不是全新的:50多年前,幽默作家迈克尔•弗兰德斯(Michael Flanders)创造了一个独断专行的食人者,头衔是“助理族长的首席助理”,恐怕他脑海里也有某个组织中特定的人吧。此外,《经济学人》(The Economist)专栏作家熊彼特(Schumpeter)指出,上世纪40年代,已故美国议员罗伯特•伯德(Robert Byrd)曾在三K党拥有“高尊独眼神(exalted cyclops)”的头衔。

Today, vice-presidents are commonplace, and alongside CEOs and CFOs we have chief security officers and chief privacy officers – although the title of chief apology officer for Southwest Airlines was bestowed by a journalist, not by the company itself.

如今,副总裁比比皆是,除了首席执行官与首席财务官外,我们还有首席安全官、首席隐私 官,美国西南航空公司(Southwest Airlines)甚至还有首席道歉官——尽管此头衔的授予者是一名记者,而不是西南航空公司本身。

I once worked for the chief economist of a very large organisation. As his only subordinate, I argued that I should be appointed deputy chief economist. My boss politely disagreed. As an economist, and a German, he was presumably opposed to inflation in every guise.

我曾经为一家大型组织的首席经济学家工作。作为他唯一的下属,我提出,我应该被任命为 副首席经济学家。我的老板礼貌地拒绝了。作为一名经济学家和一名德国人,可能他反对一切形式的膨胀。

Pomposity in senior titles is paralleled by largely symbolic awards in the lower ranks. In a new working paper, the economists Michael Kosfeld and Susanne Neckermann describe the hallmarks of these awards: companies strive to make them highly visible; they create a competitive environment (not everyone can win) and “they are based on broad and vague criteria”.

与高级头衔泛滥并行的是,向中低层员工授予基本上是象征性的奖励。在一份新的研究报告 中,经济学家迈克尔•科斯菲尔德(Michael Kosfeld)和苏珊娜•内克尔曼(Susanne Neckermann)对这些奖励的特征进行了如下描述:企业力求让奖励变得人尽皆知;奖励会创造一个竞争环境(不是所有人都可获胜),而且企业会“根据 宽泛而模糊的标准”授予奖励。

Such awards involve little or no cash element, so an obvious question is, do they work? To find out, Kosfeld and Neckermann carried out a field experiment, in partnership with a large, non-governmental organisation that was fundraising by asking Swiss communities (each has a budget) for financial support. The recruits were to perform two hours of internet research, locating the names and addresses of relevant local officials to add to a database.

这类奖励几乎或完全不涉及金钱,所以一个显而易见的问题是,它们行得通吗?为了找到答 案,科斯菲尔德与内克尔曼开展了一项实地试验,合作方是一家大型非政府组织,该组织正在向瑞士社区(每个社区均有自己的预算)寻求资金支持,以便筹集资 金。招募来的人员需要进行两个小时的互联网研究工作——找到相关地方官员的名字与地址,然后将这些内容加到数据库中。

In the control group, students were briefed and told to get on with the job. In the treatment group, they were also told that the two best performers would receive a thank-you card and a handshake from the MD. There was no chance of additional work or promotion, and the researchers judged that even as CV glitz, an award for working hard for two hours was pretty desperate. In short, nothing was on offer but bragging rights.

在对照组,研究人员向学生简要介绍了一下情况,就让他们开始工作。而实验组学生还被告 知,表现最好的两个人会收到一张感谢卡并可与董事总经理握手。他们没有得到额外工作或晋升的机会,因此研究人员判断,即使简历很耀眼,但如此的奖励就想让 这些学生辛勤工作两小时,恐怕没什么希望。简言之,除了炫耀的权利,研究人员什么也没有向这些学生提供。

Despite this, the celebratory award worked well, with recruits in the treatment group doing about 10 per cent more work, whether measured in crude quantitative terms or using a more sophisticated tally of the data entered. And it was the more capable students who increased their efforts most. While the least productive students were stuck at around one entry every 10 minutes, the most productive ones – with the highest hopes of victory – managed to increase their work rate to an entry every 90 seconds or so. Daft awards work, at least in this context.

尽管如此,庆祝性奖励还是发挥了良好的作用——无论是以粗糙的数量标准衡量,还是以更 为精细的录入数据记录衡量,实验组学生均多完成了大约10%的工作。能力更强的学生效率提高得最多。最低产的学生大约每10分钟完成一次录入,而最高产的 学生——最有希望获胜——成功地将工作效率提高到了大约每90秒完成一次录入。至少在这种背景下,愚蠢的奖励发挥了作用。

Perhaps the students didn’t have time to think about what a flimsy piece of recognition they were being offered, or perhaps they felt a trivial award was appropriate for a two-hour job. But perhaps companies use symbolic awards because employees crave them.

或许,学生没有时间去思考研究人员给他们的奖励是多么地微不足道,又或者他们觉得,微 薄的奖励对于两小时工作来说是合适的。但企业使用象征性的奖励,可能是因为员工渴望得到它们。

And there is one significant difference between symbolic awards and symbolic job titles. Anyone can be a vice-president for customer sales support, but by design there is only one employee of the month. To a competitive character, that must mean something.

此外,象征性奖励与象征性头衔之间还有一个重要差别。为了支持客户销售,任何人都可以 成为副总裁,但从理论上讲,每个月只能有一个最佳雇员。对于有进取心的人来说,这肯定是有意义的。


2010年9月13日 星期一

2010 紀念研討會演講草稿紀要

2010 紀念研討會演講草稿紀要

今天很高興來真理大學("一九九九年八月一日,奉教育部核定改名為「真理大學」,英文校名為Aletheia University(此為希臘語真理的意思)。" ) 和許多好朋友見面

"My heart is in the work"

Carnegie Mellon University. Motto, "My heart is in the work" (Andrew Carnegie)

從The Devil's Dictionary中的aim 說起:
AIM, n.
The task we set our wishes to.
    "Cheer up!  Have you no aim in life?"
She tenderly inquired.
"An aim? Well, no, I haven't, wife;
The fact is -- I have fired."


求真 篤信 力行
attained through
expressed by

換句話說 用另外一套價值觀來表達 可能是 "立德 立言 立功"
(這原是基督教用語 現在將它擴大解釋
有趣的是 校訓 並不容易了解 譬如說 齊邦媛《巨流河》 說武漢大學的"明誠弘毅" "原都有些深意 卻不記得它的真意 p.267 )

(有 些学校的校训也振奋人心。几年前,戈登•布朗(Gordon Brown)因援引母校校训“Usque Conabor”(我会加倍努力'I will strive to my utmost!")而饱受嘲笑。但在我看来,这是对每个学生的最好建议——对每位首相来说也同样如此。还有一个更妙的校训,坦诚得让人吃惊:“Nous Maintiendrons”——这是法语,意思是“我们将持之以恒”。我的母校——卡姆登女子学校(Camden School for Girls)的校训是“Onwards and Upwards”(天天向上、不断进取)。作为一群14岁大的女孩子,我们觉得这条校训太不可思议了。但正是因为这种感受,才催生出数以千计的自助书籍, 用5万多字来阐述校训三个词就说明白的事情。..... 我在男校William Ellis街对面的一幢房子里长大。该校的校训“Rather Use than Fame”(实重于名)在我眼里非常出色。酷劲十足的男孩子对此进行了篡改,用墨水盖掉几个字母后,校训变成了“Rather U than me”(先人后己)。.....伊顿公学(Eton College)的校训是“Floreat Etona”,翻成英文是“May Eton Flourish”(愿伊顿欣欣向荣).....“Vox Clamantis in Deserto”,它的意思是“沙漠中的呐喊”,是美国达特茅斯大学(Dartmouth College)的校训.......---英国《金融时报》专栏作家 露西•凯拉韦 2010-02-20

"最能呼應這樣理想的,是一九九七年創立的世新大學社會發展研究所。所上奠基於「有學有術、實踐基層、回歸理論、再造社會」十六字箴言,從老師到學生,都強調重視社會實踐與關懷弱勢。"--成露茜 豐富的靈魂 辯證的人生)

"堅其志 苦其心 勤其力
事無大小 必有所成"

的確 我們的紀念講座從2008年起 每年必出書誌慶

我們讀過台灣史的人都知道: 淡水是台灣文明開化的重要港阜
"提到台灣時叫我們記注"雞蛋糕" (基隆 淡水 高雄) 齊邦媛《巨流河》 p. 114

(" 源自一八七二年三月九日,加拿大基督長老教會宣教師馬偕‧叡理博士(Rev. Dr. George Leslie Mackay)登陸淡水,作佈教、教育及醫療工作。擇定淡水砲台埔小山丘上(本校現址),興建校舍,並親自規劃監工,1882年校舍建成後,為感念其家鄉 安大略省牛津郡(Oxford County)居民的捐助,遂命名為Oxford College,中文名為:理學堂大書院,後人稱之為牛津學堂。")

最近讀mit前任校長的書 對手民很尊敬

Pursuing the Endless Frontier

Pursuing the Endless Frontier: Essays on MIT and the Role of Research Universities

這本書 北京大學出版社有翻譯本 無索引 有些地方翻譯錯誤 譬如說 Changing Course....

這位校長我90年代初 與巨擘訪美時
在Davis校園買 MIT Shaping the Future

Mens et Manus .Net

Mens et Manus MIT Seal

MIT's motto is "Mens et Manus," which translates from the Latin to "Mind and Hand." This motto reflects the educational ideals of MIT's founders who were promoting, above all, education for practical application.

"Mens et Manus" appears on the Institute's official seal, along with a scholar and a laborer who signify a union of knowledge and the mechanical arts, as do the volumes "Science and Arts" that rest on the pedestal in the center of the seal.

來比錫大學 Leipzig的MOTTO
University of Leipzig
Universität Leipzig
Latin: Alma mater Lipsiensis
Motto Aus Tradition Grenzen überschreiten - A Tradition of Crossing Boundaries
Established December 2, 1409

現在社會上有許多你們的校友 都是繼起之秀 (去年研討會上也有人來聽官老師的"課" 溫故知新)

我們或許可以對照 莊子說的"混沌之故事" 與聖保羅的 "身體原是一系統"
混沌的許多朋友要向他報恩 頭一天給他鑿眼睛 隔天鑿鼻子
這樣創造一周 混沌似乎"有感覺"了 不料它卻已一命歸天

今年是虎年 我們都知道"騎虎難下"這俗語
不過 時光一定不饒人 虎年終會走入下一循環
或許我們當初辦這" Deming 紀念研討會" 本著另外的 "知其不可為而為"的精神
像傅斯年先生說的"凡辦一事 先騎上虎背 自然成功"

Toyota's initially ham-fisted public relations response is largely to blame for its situation. It was late in mounting a vigorous response from the very top and chief executive Akio Toyoda's testimony today is only an exercise in damage limitation. Toyota estimates the cost of recall of 8m vehicles so far at $2bn but the impact of reputational damage and lost sales is likely far higher. The $28bn drop in Toyota's market value in the past month is a good approximation.
丰田陷入目前的局面,主要责任在于公司最初 愚笨的公关反应。最高管理层迟迟未能做出有力回应,首席执行官丰田章男(Akio Toyoda)今日的作证只是一种减少损害的行为。丰田估计,召回800万辆汽车迄今的成本是20亿美元,但名誉受损和销售损失带来的影响可能要高得多。 看看过去一个月丰田280亿美元的市值损失吧。

The College Preparatory School (CPS), most often referred to as College Prep, is a four-year private coeducational day high school in Oakland, California. The school’s motto is mens conscia recti, a Latin phrase borrowed from Vergil’s Aeneid that means "a mind aware of what is right."


Quote: "The truth in its proper use."

The Wall Street Journal's founding motto
The Latin motto of the Royal Society, Nullius in verba, translates as "On the words of no one", or "take nobody's word for it". The full quotation from Horace is Nullius addictus judicare in verba magistri which means "Not compelled to swear to any master's words". This is interpreted by the Society as "an expression of the determination of the Fellows to withstand the domination of authority (such as in Scholasticism) and to verify all statements by an appeal to facts determined by experiment".[5] At its foundation, the philosophical basis of the Royal Society differed from previous philosophies such as Scholasticism, which established scientific truth based on deductive logic, concordance with divine providence and the citation of such ancient authorities as Aristotle. In fact, it represented the final triumph of the vision of the thirteenth-century friar Roger Bacon, who had fought scholastic authorities in an attempt to establish such a repository of learning.


"Non Sibi Sed Patriae (Not for self, but for country)"US Navy motto, inscribed over the chapel doors at the US Naval Academy

n., pl. -toes or -tos.
  1. A brief statement used to express a principle, goal, or ideal. See synonyms at saying.
  2. A sentence, phrase, or word of appropriate character inscribed on or attached to an object.
  3. A maxim adopted as a guide to one's conduct.

[Italian, word, motto, probably from Vulgar Latin *mōttum, word. See mot.]

━━ n.pl. 〜(e)s) (盾などに刻んだ)銘, 金言; 標語, モットー; (論文などの初めに引用した)題句; 【楽】反復楽句; 〔英〕 (包装などに記された)金言, 格言.


びょ うどう びやう— 【平等】 (名・形動)[文]ナリ(1)差別なく、みなひとしなみである・こと(さま)。⇔不平等「—に扱う」(2)近代民主主義の基本的政治理念の一。すべての個 人が身分・性別などと無関係に等しい人格的価値を有すること。「自由、—、博愛」(3)〔仏〕 真理の立場から見れば、事物が独立しているのではなく、同一の在り方をしていること。⇔差別(しやべつ)[派生] ——さ(名)

◆アクセント : びょうどう 0
The University of Hong Kong

Coat of Arms of HKU
Motto Sapientia Et Virtus (Latin)
明徳格物 (Classical Chinese)[1]
Motto in English Wisdom and Virtue


The College's motto, created by William of Wykeham, is "Manners Makyth Man". The motto was in many respects fairly revolutionary. Firstly, it was written in English, rather than Latin, which makes it very unusual in Oxford, and is especially revolutionary considering the College's age; even St Catherine's College, founded in 1965, has a Latin motto ("Nova et Vetera": "the new and the old").

Secondly, the motto makes a social statement. While it might initially seem to be suggesting that it is beneficial to have good manners, this does not really capture its full scope. What it really means is that it is not by birth, money, or property that an individual is defined, but by how he (or she) behaves towards other people.

2010年9月10日 星期五

The bias-variance tradeoff (or "bias-variance dilemma")

模式越一般化 (即,它允許其他不同的關係樣式和函數形式越多),它實效上是該模式去配適(fit)該系統的誤差的可能性越大,結果是配適良好卻預測力很弱。這種偏誤估計量-變異數 (bias-variance)兩難強迫就「過份配適複雜模式的誤差」與「簡單模式的過份簡化」之間做出選擇。

  1. Bias-variance tradeoff

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]
    The bias-variance tradeoff (or "bias-variance dilemma") is a very important issue in data modeling. Ignoring it is a frequent cause of model failure, ...
    www.aiaccess.net/English/.../e_gm_bias_variance.htm - 頁庫存檔 - 類似內容
  2. 311: Neural Networks

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]
    The Bias/Variance Dilemma. One of the most serious problems that arises in connectionist learning by neural networks is overfitting of the provided training ...
    homepages.gold.ac.uk/nikolaev/311over.htm - 頁庫存檔 - 類似內容
  3. PDF - Neural Networks and the BiadVariance Dilemma

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]
    由 S Geman 著作 - 1992 - 被引用 1833 次 - 相關文章
    understood in terms of what we will call the bias/variance dilemma. ... In Section 5, we will discuss further the bias/variance dilemma, and ...

2010年9月3日 星期五

感言敢言 (3)


普公司(Hewlett-Packard Co.)週二對其前首席執行長赫德(Mark Hurd)提起訴訟﹐而他剛剛在前一天被任命為競爭對手甲骨文公司(Oracle Corp.)的聯席總裁。

惠普在位於聖克拉拉(Santa Clara)的加州最高法院(Superior Court of California)提起訴訟﹐訴訟圍繞赫德與惠普簽訂的離職協議中的機密條款展開。

Associated Press

赫德的發言人和甲骨文的發言人均拒絕置評。赫德上月因其與一位營銷顧問有關的醜聞從惠普離職。週一﹐他被任命為甲骨文的聯席總裁﹐這家位於加利福尼亞州的軟件製造商由聯合創始人埃里森(Larry Ellison)領導。


芝加哥薪酬咨詢公司3C Compensation Consulting Consortium合伙人賴利(Mark Reilly)在惠普提起訴訟之前說﹐在同行業或競爭對手公司工作會違反該協議。


該 訴訟將進一步加劇惠普和甲骨文之間的緊張關係﹐而之前這兩家公司在很多領域都是合作伙伴。2008年﹐甲骨文與惠普獨家合作推出了一款將軟件與惠普硬件緊 密結合的數據庫設備(Database Machine)。知情人士說﹐在收購Sun Microsystems之前﹐甲骨文和惠普曾討論過二者聯合收購Sun並均分其資產。

但是在甲骨文去年透露單獨收購Sun的意圖後﹐就取消了與惠普在數據庫設備方面的合作﹐轉而開始生產使用Sun硬件的類似產品。同時惠普也開始與微軟公司(Microsoft Corp.)進行一系列合作﹐生產一些軟件與甲骨文競爭。

Robert A. Guth / Ben Worthen

東海新聞 鬼打架 程海東馬英九
新生3570人擺Love & HOPE 據說哀聲怨道



錢先生當年的禮遇並沒有法律依據 所以兇嫌其實是當年的國民黨或蔣介石先生


W. Edwards Deming, the father of the quality movement, famously laid out 14 points for management—chief among them, the notion of "constancy of purpose."

Deming argued that a company's commitment to quality had to come from the top, and it had to be reinforced over and over again. Unless a business views quality as its single, non-negotiable goal, workers will inevitably feel the need to make tradeoffs and quality will slip.

"Constancy of purpose means that quality decisions are not situational," writes the operational expert Rebecca A. Morgan. "End of month quality is the same as beginning of month. It means that the long term benefit of the organization is not sacrificed to hit quarterly targets."

So are you ready to commit? If you are, you should tell your staff—and then think about how you will handle the first conflict between your stated objective and a pressing deadline or an attractive short cut.

Corporate psychology

How to tell when your boss is lying

It's not just that his lips are moving

「ASSHOLE!」 That was what Jeff Skilling, the boss of Enron, called an investor who challenged his rosy account of his firm』s financial health. Other bosses usually give less obvious clues that they are lying. Happily, a new study reveals what those clues are.

David Larcker and Anastasia Zakolyukina of Stanford』s Graduate School of Business analysed the transcripts of nearly 30,000 conference calls by American chief executives and chief financial officers between 2003 and 2007. They noted each boss』s choice of words, and how he delivered them. They drew on psychological studies that show how people speak differently when they are fibbing, testing whether these 「tells」 were more common during calls to discuss profits that were later 「materially restated」, as the euphemism goes. They published their findings in a paper called 「Detecting Deceptive Discussions in Conference Calls」.

Deceptive bosses, it transpires, tend to make more references to general knowledge (「as you know…」), and refer less to shareholder value (perhaps to minimise the risk of a lawsuit, the authors hypothesise). They also use fewer 「non-extreme positive emotion words」. That is, instead of describing something as 「good」, they call it 「fantastic」. The aim is to 「sound more persuasive」 while talking horsefeathers.

When they are lying, bosses avoid the word 「I」, opting instead for the third person. They use fewer 「hesitation words」, such as 「um」 and 「er」, suggesting that they may have been coached in their deception. As with Mr Skilling』s 「asshole」, more frequent use of swear words indicates deception. These results were significant, and arguably would have been even stronger had the authors been able to distinguish between executives who knowingly misled and those who did so unwittingly. They had to assume that every restatement was the result of deliberate deception; but the psychological traits they tested for would only appear in a person who knew he was lying.

This study should help investors glean valuable new insights from conference calls. Alas, this benefit may diminish over time. The real winners will be public-relations firms, which now know to coach the boss to hesitate more, swear less and avoid excessive expressions of positive emotion. Expect 「fantastic」 results to become a thing of the past.

32-Inch Sharp LCD-TVs Recalled Due to Risk of Injury

WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, in cooperation with the firm named below, today announced a voluntary recall of the following consumer product. Consumers should stop using recalled products immediately unless otherwise instructed. It is illegal to resell or attempt to resell a recalled consumer product.

Name of Product: Sharp 32-inch LCD-TVs

Units: About 9,000

Manufacturer: Sharp Electronics Corporation, of Mahwah, N.J.

Hazard: The TV stand's neck support can break and cause the TV to tip-over, posing a risk of injury to the consumer.

Incidents/Injuries: None reported.

Description: This recall involves Sharp 32-inch LCD-TVs with model number LC-32SB28UT. The model number, serial number and manufacture dates of March 2010 through April 2010, are printed on a label on the back of the unit. Serial numbers included in the recall are:

Serial Number Range
0028 32837 through 0028 35190
0048 57501 through 0048 59020
0048 61401 through 0048 64020
0048 72001 through 0048 78800

No other model or serial number is included in this recall.

Sold by: Major retail stores nationwide from March 2010 through August 2010 for about $550.

Manufactured in: China

Remedy: Consumers should immediately contact Sharp to arrange for a free replacement stand neck support.

Consumer Contact: For additional information, contact Sharp at (800) 291-4289 anytime, or visit the firm's website at www.sharpusa.com

Recalled television

The Difficulty in Improving Airline Safety Now

The Difficulty in Improving Airline Safety Now

This year may end up being the worst of the past five years for airline crashes worldwide, and that doesn't count some high-profile military and private-plane fatal accidents that killed major political figures.

Associated Press

The wreckage of an Embraer E190 aircraft operated by Henan Airlines that crashed at Yichun City, in northeastern China, on Aug. 24. So far, there have been 13 fatal crashes of passenger-airline flights, according to Ascend Worldwide Ltd., a London-based aviation consulting company. That's through eight months. Last year there were only 10 fatal airline crashes of flights carrying passengers, and 13 total in 2008.

"It's an average sort of year, but the problem is we still have four months to go," said Paul Hayes, Ascend's director of safety.

The frequency of airline crashes is basically random, and they do sometimes come in bunches. In August alone, Ascend counted five airline crashes that killed passengers, including the crashes of a Boeing 737 in Colombia and an Embraer 190 in Yichun, China. In addition, the Alaska crash of a private plane claimed the lives of former Alaska Sen. Ted Stevens and four others on Aug. 9.

An increase in accidents in 2010 doesn't mean safety is eroding, aviation safety experts say. And travelers need to remember that it is still a very small number among millions of flights every year.

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But the numbers do highlight a concern among safety officials: Rapid safety improvement that airlines have enjoyed for several decades may be bottoming out.

In 1959, as the jet age was only beginning for passenger airplanes, there were 36 fatal accidents in every one million departures, according to a recent Boeing Co. report. That quickly plunged to 2.4 fatal accidents in every million takeoffs by 1969. In the past decade, the fatal accident rate for airlines hasn't been higher than 0.6 per million flights.

Can it go lower? As the industry gets safer, it gets harder and harder to reduce the accident rate further. In addition, advances in cockpit technology and aircraft reliability can lull pilots into complacency, and even erode basic flying skills because computers do so much of the flying on commercial airliners.

"You can look at it as a plateau in the western world," said Kevin Hiatt, executive vice president of the Flight Safety Foundation, a non-profit international safety group.

To make further improvement, safety officials have focused on pilot professionalism, training and experience as key issues. One big task is getting pilots to battle complacency and better understand all the technology given to them so they can respond well to unusual events.

"The technology in the cockpit works well 99% of the time. It's the 1% of the time when you look at the other guy and say, 'Why did it do that?' " said Mr. Hiatt, a former Delta Air Lines international chief pilot.


Most crashes occur as planes take off and climb or as they approach and land at airports. This year has seen several landing accidents, such as the Embraer crash in China, the 737 crash in Colombia and the Polish military transport crash in western Russia in April.

Regional airlines—smaller carriers that typically fly planes with fewer than 100 seats—have a worse safety record when compared with the big airlines to which they feed passengers. In the U.S., regional airlines have been involved in five of the seven fatal accidents on scheduled airline flights in the past 10 years, according to National Transportation Safety Board records.

Outrage over a Continental Express accident outside Buffalo, N.Y., last year led Congress to pass requirements to raise the minimum flight experience for newly hired regional airline pilots to 1,500 hours from 250.

Private planes, categorized under general aviation, have far higher accident rates than commercial aviation, which has tighter U.S. standards for maintaining and flying planes. Airline pilots even have to get required FAA medical evaluations more frequently than private pilots.

NTSB shows accident rates based on flight hours instead of takeoffs. Over the 10-year period ended 2008, "corporate aviation," usually company-owned aircraft with professional pilots, had a fatal accident rate about roughly twice the rate for airlines, and general aviation had an average rate of 1.27 fatal accidents per 100,000 flight hours—65 times higher than the very low airline fatal accident rate.

Multiple Causes

Since 1997, roughly 80% of crashes involve some human error, either by pilots or ground workers, according to the NTSB's annual review of accident data. About 50% have some environmental contributing cause, such as bad weather, and 20% have something wrong with the aircraft. Multiple causes are typically cited in investigation reports, so the factors add up to more than 100%.

Continental Divide

Accident rates vary considerably by continent. African airlines have the worst safety record, with a "hull-loss" (a destroyed plane) accident rate 25-times higher than the U.S., according to a Federal Aviation Administration study of 10-year period ended with 2007. The Flight Safety Foundation notes, however, that Nigeria is making improvements.

The hull-loss rate for European airlines was slightly higher than U.S., and Chinese airlines were about the same as the U.S., based on the FAA research. But airlines based in Asia (excluding China), Latin America and the Middle East had fatal-accident rates roughly five times higher than the U.S.

Mr. Hayes of Ascend says many of the crashes around the world happen with smaller, perhaps even obscure airlines.

Some have older planes and less training for pilots and mechanics. Some have new planes with advanced avionics flown by pilots who aren't well versed in how to use them in irregular situations. Airlines with fatal accidents this year include Ethiopian Airlines, Afriqiyah Airways, Pamir Airways, Air India Express, Airblue, Henan Airlines and Filair.

"Airlines having the accidents are not the big majors, in general," Mr. Hayes said.

In terms of planes, newer is definitely better in terms of accident rates. Boeing's annual statistical summary shows that the latest versions of the venerable 737—the 737-600, 737-700, 737-800 and 737-900—combined have a fatal accident rate of 0.11 per million departures. The A320 family of Airbus jets does almost as well, with 0.21 fatal accidents per million departures. But older planes like the DC-10 and the 727 had significantly higher accident rates—1.34 fatal crashes per million departures for the DC-10 and 0.68 for the 727. The McDonnell Douglas MD-80, still widely in use, has a fatal accident rate of 0.31 per million departures.

And the safest place to sit on a plane in case of an accident? Aviation Safety Network, a unit of the Flight Safety Foundation, scoured through accident reports on air disaster survivors looking for mentions of where survivors sat, and location really didn't seem to matter.

At least some survivors were seated in the front of the jet in 26 accident reports and rear-seated survivors were mentioned in 30 accident reports. Center sections only were mentioned in only 16 reports.

—Email middleseat@wsj.com.

SoL, Reflections: The SoL Journal


Reflections: The SoL Journal

Reflections: The SoL Journal, Volume 10, Number 2
Breakthrough conversations: Bart Hilhosrt and Peter Schütte give us "Food for Thought" reporting on scenario planning in the Nile basin; Ray Jorgensen offers tools for effective, learningful meetings; John Stultz challenges conventional wisdom about well-being at work; our book excerpt: "Stumbling" from Adam Kahane's Power and Love including a reply by Sherry Immediato. Read Reflections Volume 10, Number 2.

Want to read more? Join SoL as a Connections member and enjoy immediate access to Reflections: The SoL Journal.