「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2011年1月27日 星期四

Powerful Postures Versus Powerful Roles

Powerful Postures Versus Powerful Roles

Which Is the Proximate Correlate of Thought and Behavior?

  1. Li Huang1,
  2. Adam D. Galinsky1,
  3. Deborah H Gruenfeld2 and
  4. Lucia E. Guillory2

+ Author Affiliations

  1. 1Management and Organizations, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
  2. 2Organizational Behavior, Stanford University
  1. Adam D. Galinsky, Management and Organizations, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, 2001 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 E-mail: agalinsky@kellogg.northwestern.edu

Abstract

Three experiments explored whether hierarchical role and body posture have independent or interactive effects on the main outcomes associated with power: action in behavior and abstraction in thought. Although past research has found that being in a powerful role and adopting an expansive body posture can each enhance a sense of power, two experiments showed that when individuals were placed in high- or low-power roles while adopting an expansive or constricted posture, only posture affected the implicit activation of power, the taking of action, and abstraction. However, even though role had a smaller effect on the downstream consequences of power, it had a stronger effect than posture on self-reported sense of power. A final experiment found that posture also had a larger effect on action than recalling an experience of high or low power. We discuss body postures as one of the most proximate correlates of the manifestations of power.

中文簡介

http://case.ntu.edu.tw/blog/?p=7397


2011年1月25日 星期二

Desiging A Replacement For The UN 取代 聯合國的新設計思考法(感謝 陳巨擘提供)

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Toyota redefines auto assembly line/ Toyota 裝配線新法( U 型)

Toyota 裝配線新法( U 型)

2011/01/25


Conceptually, the automotive assembly line process introduced a century ago by Henry Ford has undergone little substantive change: until now.

Given, for example, the huge annual production volume generated by Toyota Motor Corp., it may seem incongruous that such a system has survived for as long as it has.

But Toyota, with its much-vaunted technological prowess, has finally redefined the assembly line process to cut production time and costs at a new plant that started operations this month.

The conventional image of an assembly line no longer applies to Toyota's new production flow, which takes the form of a U-shaped curve with a number of assembly stages being carried out simultaneously along the way.

To conserve space, the vehicles are placed sideways on a platform on a conveyor belt, instead of bumper to bumper. Because a standard car is about 4 to 5 meters long but only about 2 meters wide, the production track is only one-third the length of a conventional assembly line.

Toyota officials said the U-shaped arrangement allows workers on the outside and inside the curve to engage in separate tasks more easily, contributing to reduced production times.

Thanks to the reduced space and other innovations, investments for the new plant were kept at about 60 percent of initial plans.

The new system has been installed at the plant of Toyota subsidiary Central Motor Co. in Ohira, Miyagi Prefecture.

Toyota's innovations come roughly 100 years after Ford Motor Co. invented the automotive assembly line, a trademark feature for volume production.

Toyota decided to take a hard look at what is considered a given on the factory floor because demand for low-price vehicles is growing in emerging economies while sales in industrialized nations remain sluggish.

The yen's steep appreciation has also forced the automaker to come up with new ways to cut production costs.

Central Motor's plant assembles a line of small sedans for overseas markets badged as the Yaris, which is known in Japan as the Belta.

The new system is being used in assembly stages that are complicated and require a large number of workers, such as the placement of engines, interior sections and underbody parts.

"Be like a postage stamp. Stick to one thing until you get there."

Spotlight:

A Forever Stamp
A Forever Stamp
Why is the word 'forever' printed on some US postage stamps? Usually postage stamps show the price paid on the stamp's corner. When you see a stamp with the word "forever" on it, that stamp is good for use on any one-ounce, first-class letter mailed in the US, no matter how much prices may have increased since the stamp was purchased. The 2011 series of "forever" stamps includes the images of Gregory Peck, Ronald Reagan, Barbara Jordan, Helen Hayes, Alan Shepard, Mark Twain and Owney the Postal Dog. Many Asian cultures mark this year as the Year of the Rabbit. It will be commemorated in a Lunar New Year stamp available at the post office starting today, January 22. The price for first-class stamps stands at $.44, but it is expected to increase later this year. Since their introduction in 2007, "forever" stamps make up nearly 85% of all stamps sold.

Quote:

"Be like a postage stamp. Stick to one thing until you get there." Josh Billings

所有老師得A-- RETHINKING TEACHER EVALUATIONS

MOVING BEYOND TEST SCORES
Karen Hawley Miles and Karen Baroody write in Education Week: We know that the quality of teaching a student receives is the single most important predictor of student performance, yet measuring and managing that quality has proved an elusive goal. Policymakers and decisionmakers around the country are embracing the challenge of improving teaching effectiveness like never before. But much of the current discussion focuses too narrowly on using evaluation tools that rely heavily on student test scores to fire underperforming teachers and to pay bonuses to high-scoring teachers.

RETHINKING TEACHER EVALUATIONS
Grade inflation — a term normally associated with students — is widespread among Bay Area teachers, who receive so many favorable evaluations that it is impossible to tell how well they are performing, some educators say. For the 2009-10 school year, just 40 out of 1,924 teachers — or 2 percent — reviewed by the San Francisco Unified School District received below-satisfactory performance reviews, district records show. Those figures are consistent with recent years: an average of 2.7 percent of teachers evaluated over the past five years received marks of “unsatisfactory” or “needs improvement,” records show. And education scholars say that in a system where all teachers are winners, a crucial gauge of teacher quality is essentially lost. A similar pattern has emerged in nearby school districts. In the San Jose and Oakland Unified School Districts, for example, about 1 percent of teachers received ratings of “ineffective” or “unsatisfactory,” records for 2009-10 show. Administrators emphasized that weaknesses in the evaluation system did not diminish the work of teachers who educate students under difficult conditions exacerbated by a state budget crisis that has increased class sizes and reduced financing for schools. The article is in The New York Times.


The Bay Citizen

Rethinking Evaluations When Almost Every Teacher Gets an ‘A’


Grade inflation — a term normally associated with students — is widespread among Bay Area teachers, who receive so many favorable evaluations that it is impossible to tell how well they are performing, some educators say.

Adithya Sambamurthy/The Bay Citizen

Linda Shaffer, a San Francisco parent who wants more accountability from teachers, helped her son, Nate, 6, get ready for school last week.


A nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization providing local coverage of the San Francisco Bay Area for The New York Times. To join the conversation about this article, go to baycitizen.org.

For the 2009-10 school year, just 40 out of 1,924 teachers — or 2 percent — reviewed by the San Francisco Unified School District received below-satisfactory performance reviews, district records show. Those figures are consistent with recent years: an average of 2.7 percent of teachers evaluated over the past five years received marks of “unsatisfactory” or “needs improvement,” records show. And education scholars say that in a system where all teachers are winners, a crucial gauge of teacher quality is essentially lost.

A similar pattern has emerged in nearby school districts. In the San Jose and Oakland Unified School Districts, for example, about 1 percent of teachers received ratings of “ineffective” or “unsatisfactory,” records for 2009-10 show.

Administrators emphasized that weaknesses in the evaluation system did not diminish the work of teachers who educate students under difficult conditions exacerbated by a state budget crisis that has increased class sizes and reduced financing for schools.

But the numbers reveal that the review process is effectively broken, parents and administrators said, at a time when the Obama administration is seeking to tie federal money for education to the use of teacher evaluations based on student performance. That policy is controversial, particularly among teachers, who say that a variety of factors — some beyond their control — should be taken into account.

“We have to create a better evaluation system that really names what high-quality instruction looks like,” said Superintendent Anthony Smith of the Oakland district. He favors including student performance as a factor in evaluations.

Linda Shaffer, a parent of two children in San Francisco schools and a founder of Educate Our State, an advocacy group led by parents seeking more accountability, said, “The numbers tell me that there is a low bar to jump over, which doesn’t tell me anything about the teachers in the classroom.”

Some districts across the country — including Oak Grove in south San Jose — have begun to change how they evaluate teachers, incorporating student-achievement data to assess a teacher’s performance.

But those districts are in the minority. Partly because of resistance from teachers unions, most districts do not factor student test scores into evaluations.

Educators said the wide-ranging and sometimes-vague standards weaken the evaluation process. “A majority of districts in the state and the nation currently have dysfunctional evaluation systems,” said Eric A. Hanushek, a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford. “They neither help any teachers to get better nor point to teachers that should move out of teaching.”

Until this school year, San Francisco lacked detailed criteria for evaluating teacher performance. Under a revamped system put into effect last fall, teachers will be evaluated according to how well they engage students, maintain decorum, grasp subject matter, plan lessons, help students progress and expand their teaching expertise. The evaluations do not hinge on student achievement.

Principals and assistant principals observe teachers in the classroom before drafting evaluations. Teachers are then ranked as “outstanding,” “highly satisfactory,” “satisfactory,” “needs improvement” or “unsatisfactory.”

Most veteran teachers in San Francisco are evaluated every two years. Teachers who rank “satisfactory” or above on their most recent evaluation are eligible to receive a “short-form review” the next time. In it, principals have limited space to describe a teacher’s strengths and challenges.

Superintendent Carlos A. Garcia of the San Francisco district said that in the past administrators might have been less demanding in their assessments because they had concluded that the system was ineffective. “People felt, What’s the point in trying to be tough in evaluations?” Mr. Garcia said.

“We have to create a cultural shift for principals and assistant principals to be more honest with us,” he said.

Mr. Garcia said he believed that the new benchmarks were likely to improve the process. He added that he “wouldn’t be opposed” to test scores’ being factored into staff evaluations.

San Francisco’s ’s new standards will, however, have to be recalibrated to meet federal expectations. In an effort to reward states that link student achievement to teacher performance, Mr. Obama and the Republicans will probably negotiate a compromise this year to overhaul evaluations, the federal education secretary, Arne Duncan, wrote on Jan. 3 in The Washington Post.

In San Francisco, San Jose and Oakland, teacher evaluations are not used to determine merit raises or advancement, union representatives from those districts said. But administrators said they were an important measure of the quality of teaching. Even more rigorous standards would help administrators take disciplinary action against teachers who consistently underperform, educators said.

California’s education code, contractual obligations and the threat of expensive legal battles can sometimes prevent veteran teachers from being fired. No “tenured” teachers in San Francisco, those on the payroll for two years or more, have been fired in the last three years, records show. In contrast, teachers can be fired for any reason in their first two years. Of the 252 new teachers hired last year, 42, or 17 percent, were let go for various reasons, district records show.

Leaders of the San Francisco teachers’ union say their evaluation system should be left alone. “I don’t think using student achievement as part of teacher evaluations is effective,” said Dennis Kelly, president of United Educators of San Francisco, which represents 6,000 teachers and other staff members.

Teachers should not be penalized for myriad factors affecting student, including parental involvement, Mr. Kelly said.

Linking student growth and teacher performance could also drive teachers from struggling schools, some teachers say.

“Everybody blames teachers for the problems in public schools,” said Dennis Klein, a third-grade teacher at Bret Harte Elementary School in Bayview. “We need smaller classes and more time to plan lessons and teach.”

Regardless of the criteria in use, however, it is difficult for San Francisco parents to assess their child’s teachers. Evaluations are protected by privacy laws.

“Getting teacher-level information is impossible,” Ms. Shaffer said. “It should be publicly available. It is a public system, paid for by taxpayers.”

In the push for more teacher accountability, a growing number of school systems nationwide are trying different approaches. The value-added method, for example, rates teachers from best to worst using students’ test scores. The Los Angeles Times enraged teachers last year when it published a series that included the rankings of about 6,000 elementary school teachers based on a value-added analysis. In south San Jose, administrators at the Oak Grove district say including student achievement in evaluations has helped bolster the district’s Academic Performance Index, the state’s measure of academic performance.

“Most of our students’ scores have increased,” said KC Walsh, president of the Oak Grove Educators Association, which represents 620 teachers and other employees. “The accountability has improved student achievement.”

jgollan@baycitizen.org

2011年1月23日 星期日

H.P. Replaces 4 on Its Board 2011年可以再談 因為Simon和 胡適都是這方面老手

我去年2010年似乎忘記談HP的董事會 2011年可以再談 因為Simon和 胡適都是這方面老手

第一部 2010戴明博士紀念演講

第一講:談戴明博士的系統與變異--紀念他誕辰110周年(鍾漢清)

第二講:組織績效與系統優化. (鍾漢清)

組織為一系統;團隊一體與領導

系統與其目的

戴明談產官學目的

生產系統與SIPOC

統計管制狀態與 Juran 原理互通

限制理論(TOC)

目的說明書

目標管理制與考績制的澄清

顧客:生產系統最重要的一環

消費者研究與調查

PDCA

談公司 (組織) 治理:董事會

協調與綜合

會議技能(meeting technology)

組織為一系統;團隊一體與領導

系統與其目的

戴明談產官學目的

生產系統與SIPOC

統計管制狀態與 Juran 原理互通

限制理論(TOC)

目的說明書

目標管理制與考績制的澄清

顧客:生產系統最重要的一環

消費者研究與調查

PDCA

談公司 (組織) 治理:董事會


協調與綜合

會議技能(meeting technology)


H.P. Replaces 4 on Its Board in Wake of Chief’s Dismissal


SAN FRANCISCO — Hewlett-Packard announced a major boardroom shake-up on Thursday in the aftermath of the forced resignation of Mark V. Hurd as its chief executive.


Steve Marcus/Reuters

Patricia Russo, of Alcatel-Lucent, was named to H.P.’s board.

Matt Sayles/Associated Press

Meg Whitman, of eBay, is also a new board member.

The changes are intended to diversify H.P.’s board and add new experience and perspectives, according to Raymond J. Lane, H.P.’s chairman. It comes just months after the hiring of Léo Apotheker as chief executive.

But the changes seemed only to refocus attention on the drama at H.P. since accusations of sexual harassment by a former contractor led to Mr. Hurd’s departure six months ago. A company investigation found no evidence of harassment, but instead uncovered irregularities in Mr. Hurd’s expense reports. He has denied any wrongdoing.

Boardroom drama at H.P, in Palo Alto, Calif., is nothing new. Five years ago, a spying scandal developed in which fellow board members and journalists were targeted in an effort to uncover who was leaking company information. A few years earlier, the board fought publically over the proposed acquisition of Compaq, the computer maker, which ultimately was approved.

The board has faced withering criticism for its handling of the Hurd matter, along with questions about whether he deserved to be pushed out. A shareholder lawsuit accuses the board of mismanagement for awarding Mr. Hurd a multimillion-dollar severance package. Investigations by the company and the Securities and Exchange Commission are continuing.

H.P., based in Palo Alto, Calif., is trying to get a “fresh start” after months of turbulence, said A. M. Sacconaghi Jr., an analyst with Sanford C. Bernstein & Company. With the new chief executive in place since November, a “changing of the guard” is only natural, he said.

H.P. said four members were leaving the board: Joel Z. Hyatt, John R. Joyce, Robert L. Ryan and Lucille S. Salhany.

The company said five new members will start Friday. They are Shumeet Banerji, chief executive of Booz & Company; Gary M. Reiner, former chief information officer of General Electric and a current special adviser to General Atlantic, a private investment company; Patricia F. Russo, former chief executive of Alcatel-Lucent; Dominique Senequier, chief executive of AXA Private Equity; and Meg Whitman, eBay’s former chief executive.

“The addition of these new directors will further diversify the outstanding talents and wide-ranging experience that our directors already bring to H.P.,” Mr. Lane, the chairman, said in a statement. “Each is a widely respected and deeply experienced business leader, and together they will provide our board and management team with new insight and perspectives relating to H.P.’s business and the rapidly changing technology industry.”

The new board members have experience with international business and technology.

Mr. Apotheker plans to focus on software services, and, given his experience leading the German software maker SAP, to try to expand H.P’s global business.

2011年1月22日 星期六

淵博三人行: 胡適,司馬賀(H. A. Simon),戴明(W. E. Deming) (2011年戴明講座)

淵博三人行: 胡適,司馬賀(H. A. Simon),戴明(W. E. Deming) (2011年戴明講座)

Profound Minds: Hu Shih, Herbert A. Simon and W. Edwards Deming ( 2011 Deming Lectures)

第一部 2011年戴明講座

導論: 從經驗到模式朋友與領導/淵源的組織轉型者: 胡適,司馬賀,戴明

第一講: 胡適作為好人,好朋友和好領導者

第二講: 司馬賀作為科學家與教育家的滿意人生和生活的種種模式

第三講: 戴明的《產業/教育/政府的新經濟學》創新

尾聲:一些教訓:

第二部 文選和評注: 胡適,司馬賀,戴明

2.1 胡適文選和評注

2.2 司馬賀文選和評注

2.3 戴明文選和評注

第三部 理想與理想的設計法展開

幼稚園行政: 領導與環境的理想的設計法 (劉玉燕) 一些《戴明領導手冊》教學經驗”(鍾漢清)

解析機械零組件破損分析與模具研發設計 (郭展銓)

略記2010年東海大學演講與訪友 (熊維強和蘇錦坤)

《反智主義的反撲》(蘇錦坤)



More to a Smile Than Lips and Teeth

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
By CARL ZIMMER

A wide range of studies, from brain scans to cultural observations, are building a new scientific model of the smile.

2011年1月21日 星期五

胡適研究( 沈衛威)

沈衛威先生的胡適研究相關書 沒什麼特別的識見 記下當資料


胡適派文人集團引論 / 沈衛威 2000 圖書 總館
胡適傳 / 沈衛威 2000 此書應是1990?版本


文化 心態 人格--認識胡適 沈衛威著 開封:何河南大學 1991
傳統與現代之間--尋找胡適 沈衛威著 開封:何河南大學 1994

2011年1月18日 星期二

A Touchstone of Detroit Is Dismantled

Books of The Times

A Touchstone of Detroit Is Dismantled


The title and subtitle of Paul Clemens’s new book, “Punching Out: One Year in a Closing Auto Plant,” are so misleading that they nearly constitute literary fraud. If I’d paid $25.95 for it — book critics get free advance copies — I’d consider calling, or inventing, the Better Nonfiction Bureau.

Elizabeth MacDonald

Paul Clemens

PUNCHING OUT

One Year in a Closing Auto Plant

By Paul Clemens

Illustrated. 271 pages. Doubleday. $25.95.

Related

The title suggests that this book will be about the people, perhaps even the author, who punched the clock at a Detroit factory and are punching it no more. The subtitle implies that we’ll follow their stories over the course of its final year of operation. No, and no.

What “Punching Out” is about, instead, is the year after the plant, the massive Budd Detroit Automotive Plant, Stamping and Framing Division, has shut down. Everyone has gone home. It’s about watching the plant’s enormous press lines being disassembled by hired gangs of heavy-metal vultures and shipped off to flourishing factories in places like Brazil, Mexico and India, where the equipment is needed.

This is not a dull or unimportant story. But it’s similar to discovering that a book with the subtitle “One Year in the Life of a Terminal Cancer Patient” is actually about the harvesting of his organs. Caveat emptor.

Mr. Clemens demonstrated in his previous book, a memoir called “Made in Detroit” (2005), that he’s a raw, introspective, truth-telling writer. That book was about race relations in his native city, a story he combined with his own, and was in part about how books and literature changed his life.

That earlier book is worth finding for two reasons. One, it’s excellent. Two, it contains the autobiographical material that is missing, and missed, from “Punching Out.” A reader who comes to “Punching Out” cold, without reading Mr. Clemens’s first book, will wonder why this first-person narrative is so remote, why there is so little about the author or his parents, who both worked in auto or tire plants.

“Punching Out” has other problems. The biggest is this: Mr. Clemens never gets very close to the rowdy, tattooed, blue-collar guys he writes about, the scavengers hired to swoop down and dismantle the big stamping machines. When he sees a few of them in a bar, he writes: “I’d lost my nerve to approach them. This was their habitat, not mine, and I was out of my depth, sipping my Coke.” Mr. Clemens’s blue-collar credentials are close to impeccable, but around these hard men he’s a mewling yuppie.

All this said, “Punching Out” is frequently rewarding. Mr. Clemens traces the colorful history of the Budd plant, which manufactured parts for a variety of car brands and which once employed nearly 10,000 people. He is a lovely, mournful observer of Detroit’s people.

“The working class is to Detroit what immigrants are to New York, prospectors to California, prisoners to Australia,” he writes. “The people who put the place on the map, and who continue to populate its psychic space.”

He gets at a grim reality: there is more money to made in tearing Detroit down, around 2011, than building it back up. He summarizes his book’s primal subject better than a panel of gods and philosophers could: “The American working class, mopping up after itself.”

Mr. Clemens’s writing about Detroit’s unions is savvy and complex. “Pro-union and anti-union members of the working class can be as difficult to distinguish, for those who haven’t made a study of the schism, as Shia and Sunni,” he writes. He’s funny on people’s character traits. About a laconic worker from Bosnia, he cracks: “His speaking role was somewhere between Harpo and Zeppo.”

About two men from Arkansas: “Dave and Terry senior had dental outcomes consistent with the 19th-century English Midlands.” Another tells him two things that will make you stop and think for a moment. The first: “I drank 32 beers the other night.” The second: “Hell, I don’t even know what e-mail is.”

Mr. Clemens is at his best when he’s somewhat angry — that is, when he gets some dirt on his spade. He riffs terrifically on “ruin porn,” what he calls “the arty delectation of Detroit’s destruction.” He nails those who arrive “armed with telephoto lenses, French theory, and poetic notions.”

This would be an even better riff if Mr. Clemens weren’t pretty highfalutin himself. “Punching Out” is crawling with literary references, some quite nice, some forced. I’m not sure that it helps to know that the Budd Company’s official historian, in some dry corporate document, was “as fond of ellipses as Louis-Ferdinand Céline.”

It was also probably a mistake to write about Thoreau, as Mr. Clemens does near his book’s end: “What sent me back to Budd, again and again, was a wish to live deliberately. This sounds absurd — a cabin in Concord Budd was not. But I’m a product of my environment, and a Detroit auto plant would be my Walden Pond.” This wouldn’t be an absurd idea at all if “Punching Out” were especially personal or reflective. But it isn’t.

“Punching Out” is a lament for a dying city and a dying way of being a man in America, a time when “guys good with their hands didn’t have to worry about being good at much else, up to and including speaking.”

What I admired most about the book, I think, is the lack of sourness intermixed with its blue funk. Detroit’s loss, the author realizes, will be someone’s gain somewhere. As Mr. Clemens watches a piece of large machinery being disassembled, he listens to a man named Duane, who says to him: “You can’t measure it. You can’t measure the lives, you can’t measure the lunches, the allowances, that people were able to give their kids.”

Duane goes on to say, in the most uncommonly patriotic comment I’ve read in a long time, that he “hoped that Mexican families might now benefit as much as his own had. ‘It’s why we’re taking such care getting this thing out of here.’ ”

2011年1月14日 星期五

《 Simon 管理行為》:目錄/ 作者為hc譯本序/第一版序/第四版導言

《 Simon 管理行為》:目錄/ 作者為hc譯本序/第一版序/第四版導言

《 Simon 管理行為》目錄(1999/09)

作者為中譯本序言 H. A. Simon(司馬賀)

第四版導言 司馬賀

第一版前言 司馬賀

謝詞 司馬賀

第一章 決策制定與管理組織 1

評論與發揮 決策制定與管理組織 18

第二章 管理理論的某些問題 31

評論與發揮 管理理論的某些問題 54

第三章 決策的事實要素與價值要素 60

評論與發揮 決策的事實要素與價值要素 75

第四章 管理行為中的理性 80

評論與發揮 管理行為中的理性 97

第五章 管理決策心理學 103

評論與發揮 管理行為的心理學 131

第六章 組織的平衡 156

評論與發揮 組織的平衡 168

第七章 權威的角色 197

評論與發揮 權威的角色 225

第八章 溝通 232

評論與發揮 溝通 248

第九章 效率準則 278

評論與發揮 效率準則 303

第十章 忠誠心與組織認同 310

評論與發揮 忠誠心與組織認同 331

第十一章 組織的剖析 341

評論與發揮 組織的剖析 367

附錄   什麼是管理科學 397

索引 404

中譯本簡介及譯後記 鍾漢清


***

作者為中譯本所作序言(1999/09)

不管是東方或西方的人類社會,為了達成其各種標的,數千年來都運用了大規模的組織。從早期開始的農業灌溉、軍 事活動到一般的政事,有組織的活動向來是不可或缺的,譬如說,最早的一部組織論作品就是《孫子兵法》,它的建議對現在的軍事仍然管用,而古希臘的色諾芬 (Xenophon)曾寫出實用的地產經營文章。

我寫作《管理行為(Administrative Behavior)》的主旨,在於掌握這些全世界都適用的人類經驗,以及由它們教我們,為了成就人類目的,我們要如何有效地加以組織的教訓。本書的初版及 過去半世紀來的三次擴增文章,都是試圖將此一有關各種組織的歷史經驗,與人類心靈如何工作──特別是在解決問題及決策制定的過程──的現代科學知識相結 合。這一新版本也檢視了正在興起的、了不起的電子資訊處理及通信革命,以及此一革命對組織結構及過程的衝擊。

本人很高興《管理行為》第四版的漢文譯本即將問世。如上文所述,中華人民對組織這一主題並不陌生,不過他們也 許可以從西方人對組織實務的思考獲得一些助益,從而可以在東西方最好的基礎上,建立他們的現代化知識。本書也採用現代認知心理學來說明有效的組織實務,是 如何從人類心靈的能力及其限制(今日借助於現代電腦及通信科技的協助及延伸)成長而成的。

本人深謝鍾漢清(第四版)、楊礫(第三版)、韓春立(第三版)、徐立(第三版)先生的譯事辛勞,希望這本書能給讀者受益及樂趣。

賀伯特 A. 西蒙

1999年8月9日

於美國賓州 匹茲堡


***

第一版序言(1999/09)

這本書是我在公共管理研究工作中,試圖建立有益的研究工具的探索結果。它產生於我的信念,即:在這研究領域 裏,我們至今還沒有充分而恰當的語匯和概念方面的工具,當然也就談不上用它們來作合乎現實並深刻地刻劃管理意義上的組織,哪怕是簡單的管理型組織。這裏所 謂刻劃管理型組織,指的是它能依據科學的分析,來提供組織結構及運轉的效益。在我讀過的管埋組織方面的著作當中,能從文字描述上抓住了或提出了組織的真正 本質的,寥寥無幾;至於能讓我確信,它們關於組織效益的結論,或對改善組織效益的提議,乃是從所述證據中正確得出者,就更加少見了。

由本書的預備版本及從中抽出來發表的數篇文章所引起的反響,表明這種懷疑不獨我有,許多管理領域的實務家和研 究工作者也有同感。對我們的學科和對作為科學家的我們,這一狀況構成了嚴厲的指責。一項化學實驗之所以成立,之所以具有科學權威,原因在於其可重複性;如 果不是充分而周密地把它的可重複性描繪出來,那它就站不住腳了。在管理學界,我們就連說明在管理〝實驗〞中,出現了什麼現象的本領,都十分貧乏,更不要說 保證實驗的可重複性了。

在我們得以建立任何永恆的管理〝原則〞之前,我們首先要能夠在文字描述上,精確地說明管理組織的面貌和運轉狀 況。我試圖構造一系列能夠進行上述描述的術語;本書記錄了我所得出的結論,它作為本人從事管理研究的一基礎工作。這些結論並不構成一種管理〝理論〞,因為 除了少數通過假設而提出了管理格言之外,我沒有提出任何管理原則。如果非說本書包含什麼〝理論〞不可的話,那只有:決策制定工作,乃是管理的心臟,以及我 們必須從關於人類抉擇的邏輯學和心理學中,導出管理理論的語匯。

我希望本書能對三類的人有所裨益:首先是從事管理學研究的人,他們可從本書中找到描述和分析組織的某些可行方 法;其次是實際管理工作者,他們在有些情況下可以用本書來幫助自己,從而在巴納德先生的〝序言〞所說的第三知識層次(普遍知識的層次)上,來思考管理問 題;再次是研究生和本科生,他們可能希望通過描繪了真實管理圖景的、關於行為過程的更周密的論述,來補足他們的課堂知識。

赫伯特 A . 西蒙

一九四六年十二月

***

第四版導言(1999/09)

發行《管理行為》第四版可作出版五十周年慶。由於我們處於光速般變化的時代,我們不禁要問,一本寫於四十年代 的書,是否仍然能在二十一世紀及未來千禧年屹立不搖呢?如果我們的主題是電子計算機或分子遺傳學,那麼在1997年版本中,1947年的文章一定很少會倖 存的。然而,本書的主題為組織。人類大型組織的興起,至少已有四千餘年。儘管今天陸軍所用的物理技術,已經與尼尼微(Nineveh)或埃及或長安所使用 的,完全迥異,不過古代軍人在制定決策或是管理人員的過程,我們很熟悉,它們大體上與我們的,相差無幾。基本的組織諸過程尚未有鉅變(深入的革命)。我們 頂多可以說,在我們時代才開始面臨社會及技術上的重大變革。

因此,本書第四版有雙重任務。第一重任務是清楚地描寫從人類組織初現開始,要想有效運作它們時,極根本重要的 決策及人的管理諸過程。第二重任務是檢視現代技術如何改變我們的社會價值觀及實務,以及新的電子通訊及資訊處理技術,如何正在改變我們的管理及決策制定。 就第一項任務而言,我們大體仍可以依賴初版《管理行為》的正文。而為了補充原版的正文,改變某些強調重點,並處理我們所獲的新知識,以及組織所面臨的新的 問題和機會,我們則必須大力地在每章的〝評論及發揮〞各節中加以補強、延伸討論。

《Simon 管理行為 第四版》: 大教堂更新

《Simon 管理行為 第四版》: 大教堂更新

2011年1月16日潤稿時 Simon 已過世近10年兒 Samuelson 也過世了......當時說《管理行為 第四版》的作者:"赫伯特 A. 西蒙(Herbert A. Simon,中文名字司馬賀)為卡內基美隆大學心理學和電腦科學的講座教授。西蒙教授獲得1978年諾貝爾經濟學獎,現在致力於人工智能領域。"
「諾貝爾獎的頒給,主要是因為我對管理和行政決策理論的研究,及該理論有注於對商業組織的了解。因此,真正地說,應是管理決策理論的研究使我獲獎。」(作者Simon 在1982年回答吳清基問題時這樣說.......)

關於本書之翻譯的一些說明和致謝︰鍾漢清先生負責本書的統合譯校,所以本書文責由他負,雖然他根據本書第三版(由楊礫,韓春立及徐立於1988譯出)作了大規模的校改。並要感謝鍾漢忠先生,及林益正、卓弘哲先生在電腦文字處理上的幫忙。


大教堂更新──從《從經濟學第十六版》到《管理行為 第四版》(1999/09)

本公司暑假實習學生買了一本P. A. Samuelson及W. D. Nordhaus合著的《經濟學(Economics, 16/E,1998)》中譯本,我借來翻翻(其實該再詳讀),感慨(想)頗多。我在七十年代初讀的是該書的第七或第八版(翻印本),現在這本書則是與人合作的版本。

去 年,美國原出版公司亦發售初版珍藏本(五十年紀念)。作者特別為它寫篇引 言,我記得他引了英國文豪喬叟一段膾炙人口的故事,大意是當年(1948年)的初版,既是一石一石地砌,也是努力地幹,而且又是自知自己在建造大教堂,他 的意思就該書既見樹又見林,質量並濟,既唯物(寫作/立言),又唯心(意義不凡,現在彷彿各學院的人都要讀經濟學才行,當然,聽說有人以為 Samuelson這本太深 了,而採用其他讀本去年美國還出了一本預付版稅給五百萬美金的經濟學教科書

作 者自詡讀這本書的各版本,就可了解經濟學主流思想的演進,因為本書三、四年就出一新版,似可網羅許多新潮想法(可不是,這50年期間世間多了三十多位諾貝 爾經濟學獎得主、甚至多了他們合資開的金融公司(去年「幾乎」倒閉),何況經濟領域的論文數目極多,而且經濟學家寫的文章也編入國中課本了

不 過,才子如 Samuelson的內心,也一定深以為無法跟上潮流為苦,所以要求出版商再找合作者來共同修整此"大教堂"。這也未嘗不是好主意,因為我曾在比利時最古 老的教堂內看他們展示抽象畫──當時的感受雖然認為此舉極為無力、力道單薄,不過它也算得上可反映當代精神的努力。1998年出的書,一定要加上光碟及 「經濟學的網際網路資源」,告訴讀者去哪裡找資料(「許多鑽石埋藏在其中」)。

Samuelson在該書前言說了這段話,令人心有戚戚焉:「經濟學的入門課程無法讓你精通根據各地學生的經驗,最棒的就是導論課程。你進入這種有創意的領域後,世界就不一樣了幾年之後...當年所不太了解的,現在卻能夠豁然開朗…...」(我現在仍有許多「大惑終生不解」的東西呢!)

當年沒福氣讀H. A. Simon的大作《管理行為》Administrative Behavior)--此書真正幫他得到1978年度的諾貝爾經濟學獎Samuelson的得獎作品 是《經濟學分析的基礎》。 話又說回來當時即使看了也不見得懂,我買了盜印的第2版版時已是上班族,很難靜下心來與這本需要逐句來讀的經典作對話。

我到近50歲才譯完Simon的《管理行為》第四版,因為翻譯,所以必須精讀許多遍,欣慰的是每讀它都有新的收穫。我花的那麼大的功夫把這本經典作品引進台灣並放棄中國的翻譯專賣權(我給Simon 這樣建議),最大的目的就是希望我們在社會科學上能打好基礎,希望可以產出世界一流的思想家。

過去Simon教授的《管理行為》的更新採 取的方式是:約每隔十五年加一版(年度為:1945年(試版),1947(初版),1957,1976,1997),而且每新版都保持初版的原文,本書再 加上作者五十年的研究及思考、歷練的結晶,所以稱得上是這半世紀來一本了不起的經典之作。我把原書封底的介紹附下供大家參考。

在這本劃時代作品的第四版(1997)中,西蒙(Herbert A. Simon)將其前驅性的人類抉擇和管理決策理論應用到具體的組織問題上。西蒙教授保留他初版各章的經典論述,並在各章的章末加入他對於五十年來組織行為各新層面之"評論和發揮"。西蒙教授在本書中探討了變化中社會價值觀和科技對組織管理的影響力,而使得這本世界經典更新版充滿智慧新意。

《公共行政評論》(Public Administration Review)將本書《管理行為》Administrative Behavior評為"半世紀以來最佳作品(Book of the Half Century)"。它被視為一本對社會科學思想最有影響力的的書,而諾貝爾獎提評委員會譽它為一本"劃時代的著作"。

本書的對象讀者為 : 想要了解組織與經營管理的核心─決策制定過程─的經營管理者及其他專業者。換句話說本書為企業管理、經濟學、社會學、心理學、電子計算機科學、公共行政和法律諸科學生所必讀的作品。

《Simon 管理行為》是一套淵博知識系統,關心的是所有類型組織的了解。他是從認識決策的理性限度,先區分 決策的事實及價值因素,再分別考量這兩方面的有形、無形因素及相互作用,來找出全系統的最有效率(最佳)決策。這本書五十年來擴充到涵蓋政府(這是本廣義 的政治科學的書)、教育界(尤其是工商管理學院的設計)、工商業等所有重要議題。 

    這本書第四版成書於1997年,工商業的管理蓬勃發展,作者因此為新版增添了許多相關的論述,例如在第九章〝效率準則〞--它可以說是管理理論的唯一準則,作者本書主旨之一是破所有以前的各種準則,而建立有限理性決策效率準則-- 的 〝評論與發揮〞中就加入〝工商公司成功的衡量〞,這也是研究方法的"可運作定義" (operational definition)的最好的示範。此外他對品管圈(參與管理)、組織學習、電腦科技應用、研究開發、品質及組織文化、溝通等議題,都有極精采的 新論。

  這本《Simon 管理行為 》的第四版,可以說是20世紀大天才司馬賀先生近五十年的心血結晶。原作獻給他的夫人。這本中譯本是獻給漢文讀者。我個 人花了大氣力出版這本傑作及司馬賀先生的主要作品,目的是想紀念自己年輕時的一些雄才大略,希望我們的文化中能產生這種綜合文、理、人文的學者、科學家。

我一直相信這夢想是行得通的。希望有人能潛下心來探討人與組織科學,司馬賀所談的人為事務的設計科學等,希望我們經過如此優秀作品的啟迪能透過實驗與研究,讓我 們了解人間事物皆學問,能深入了解西方文明中對理性、組織、管理、設計、決策、認知、人工智能、系統等等的論述,並能與世界一流的心靈溝通,共創新文明。

Won’t You Be My Wireless Neighbor?

Op-Ed Contributor

Won’t You Be My Wireless Neighbor?


FOR a long time, I relied on my Brooklyn neighbors’ generosity — that is, their unsecured wireless networks — every time I connected to the Web.

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So, to linksys of Park Slope, in 2005, for allowing me to do my first freelance work from home; to Netgear 1 and Netgear 2 of the same neighborhood, in 2006, for supporting my electronic application to several graduate schools; to DHoffma, from 2007 to 2008, for letting me pay my taxes online and stream new episodes of “Friday Night Lights” each evening for a whole winter; to belkin54g, Cooley and, above all, to the blessed Belkin_G-Plus_MIMO of Ditmas Park, from 2009 to 2010, for the ability to speedily reply to student e-mails, video-chat with my sister, keep abreast of the latest literary hoo-ha, “like” as many of my friends’ Facebook posts as I liked and learn all about lentil-sprouting or Prometheus whenever the mood struck: Thank you. And may you rest in peace.

A few months ago, the Belkin_G-Plus_MIMO network changed its name and gained a padlock icon in my computer’s list of available connections. Then — crickets. The era of unintentional, unasked-for or simply unacknowledged Internet sharing, it seemed, had come to an end.

Suddenly disconnected, I realized how lucky I’d been all those years, having that tremendous body of information and awesome communication technology at my fingertips, all basically free. It may have been unfair, but I don’t believe I was stealing: the owners’ leaving their networks password-free was essentially a gift, an ethereal gesture of kindness. Sometimes I’d imagine my anonymous benefactors, those people behind Netgear 1 or belkin54g, thinking, “Well, I have Internet to spare.”

And, really, who doesn’t? Home wireless networks can usually support five or more computers, yet there are only about 1.4 computers per American household.

For a few blindered weeks, I debated whether or not to finally “buy” the Internet. The whole system, though, seemed wasteful: paying a company to come wire my apartment, then paying a monthly fee so that I could maintain my own private territory within the cloud of 20 or so wireless networks that were already humming around my apartment. It would be all the more wasteful given the likelihood that, just as cellphones made landlines optional, smartphones and tablets will soon replace the need for home networks at all.

Why couldn’t I instead shell out a nominal fee — to someone, anyone — to partake of the riches that were all around me in abundance?

Paying for Internet access, after all, isn’t like paying for cable TV, where cable providers pay cable networks in turn. My establishing a new network instead of sharing with neighbors does nothing to benefit the Web sites whose content benefits me and whose value to advertisers is based on views and visits.

Nor is it like paying for phone service, where the physical object that makes and receives calls is inseparable from your unique number. My e-mail address is utterly portable: it’s not bound to an I.P. address or one computer — and, like the vast majority of the Internet’s services and information, it’s free.

Which is part of why getting online free felt so natural. During my Internet-less weeks, in desperate moments, I checked e-mail on my Kindle’s wireless connection, which is complimentary (to encourage e-book purchases). But that was a painfully slow experience akin to surfing the Web on an Etch a Sketch.

In an ideal world, the Internet would be universally available to anyone able to receive it. Promisingly, the Federal Communications Commission in September announced that it would open up unused analog airwaves for high-speed public wireless use, which could lead to gratis hotspots spreading across cities and through many rural areas.

But an Internet as freely obtainable as broadcast TV hasn’t yet arrived. And so I recently found myself watching as a technician strung a wire from a tall pole in the backyard to my third-floor apartment so I could have my own connection (wired, to ease myself into the world of paid Internet). It was a process that took nearly three hours, and meant the addition of another long cable to the fistful already circling the building.

When he finished, I had to ask: “Shouldn’t this all be wireless? Wouldn’t that be much easier?”

“Too much interference,” he said. “Too many networks affect the signal.” I thought again about all the people close by with all their overlapping networks.

Perhaps the solution is a simple, old-fashioned gesture. Just knock on a neighbor’s door, and ask if she might be able to spare some wireless.

Helen Rubinstein teaches writing at Brooklyn College.

System of Profound Knowledge.....圓夢半世紀後

圓夢半世紀後(1999/11)


一個人物的生命並不只是一些事實的累積,

重要的是洞悉領悟的剎那

精神凝聚的片刻

       ──Oliver Stone



戴明晚年曾說,"這一陣子比以後十年所學的還多!" 他創立/提出其 System of Profound Knowledge.....


  半世紀或五十年,多少是當今人們可預期的工作年歲,這些可能是偏高的估計,不過在歷史洪流中,或在上帝眼中,五十年實在只能算一聲嘆息

百年樹人譬如說,台灣安定繁榮了五十年,依然沒有公認的世界一流大學。

  像胡適這種四十歲就能寫自傳的人,畢竟是少數。有幾位諾貝爾獎得主的傳記,只記了青春歲月,或是某些作家一本書只能寫童年的,就另當別論。最近看了一些書,令人有感而發:人多半是在實踐他年輕時的夢而已,能夠圓少年期的夢,就是幸福。

  蕭乾在1940年6月3日從英國寫信(p. 780)給胡適,向「五年來文體的解放者,新文藝的創基人,適之先生」請安。信中報導「近與一愛爾蘭青年合讀James Joyce的 Ulysses,這本小說如有人譯出,對我國創作技巧勢必有大影響,惜不是一件輕易的工作。」

  蕭乾在經三十餘年的困頓(現在的人很難想像)之後,與他的太太文潔若合作譯出該書,作為遺愛人間的禮物。

  最近買了二本書,初譯及定譯都是在五十年以後。一本是劉思慕(1904-85)的歌德自傳《詩與真》,二 篇譯序分別寫於1934年7月和1982年3月,為歌德百年祭與百五十年祭時所寫。另一本為陳原、陳實譯的《貝多芬:偉大的創造性年代》。兩者譯書中,劉與 陳原為忠誠的共產黨員,主要的目的或為「繁榮我國社會主義文藝和精神文明盡一點微薄的力量」。

  我在譯的H. A. Simon的《管理行為》(初版及四版間隔五十年)。各章的第一版部分都採取第一版而一字未異。

  「歌德晚年才完成《詩與真》。他知道他在人世間的歲月所留下來的痕跡,不會消失在時空的長河裡。」周作人雖然"壽則多辱",還是翻譯了他想翻的日文和希臘文古典.....

他們都是「熱愛生活,渴望光明,追求真理,自強不息」的人。

2011年1月11日 星期二

Out of the Crisis 談天主教大學Rivier College

Out of the Crisis by W. Edwards Demi ng 頁39 談天主教大學Rivier College,它是通才學院:Offers a Catholic liberal education with a commitment to social justice. 。
校長Sister

某某翻譯成修女沒問題

Sister :修女;女修會之會員:矢發簡式三願的女士,最普遍之稱呼為修女,但部分地區亦稱為姆姆,修姆,姑姑,姑,姑奶奶,小妹妹,姑娘,修道等。簡稱 Sr. 。與矢發盛式三願的女士 nun 相對照,但分別不大。詳見 nun

http://www.peterpoon.idv.hk/Resource/Dictionary/S.htm



nun:修女;女修道士;尼姑(佛教):原字來自拉丁文 nonna,意為保姆;按原意 nun 與 sister
有別:前者指矢發盛式願,又稱特典願 solemn vows 之修女,後者專指矢發簡式願,又稱常典願 simple vows 之修女;今則通用。)

不過校長之BUSINESS MANAGER翻譯為業務經理,或許可再談。查該校的網站之組織,有BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 和BUSINESS OFFICE –以財務、會計、出納為主,所以可能還是翻譯成總務或採購…..

Toyota becoming more responsive

In Detroit, Toyota Vows to Earn Trust

Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times

Akio Toyoda, the Toyota president, made his first visit to an American auto show, displaying the Prius V onstage in Detroit.


DETROIT — The auto show here this week is shaping up to be a celebration of the American car industry’s resurgence. But the appearance on Monday of Akio Toyoda, the Toyota president and grandson of the Japanese carmaker’s founder, was a reminder that the biggest foreign player in the American market is refusing to be counted out.

Mr. Toyoda, making his first visit to an American auto show, stood onstage at Detroit’s Cobo Center to declare that everyone at his company is “committed to continue earning the trust and confidence of American consumers.” He went on to introduce three new versions of Toyota’s popular hybrid car, the Prius — a larger one, a smaller one and one that plugs in — in an effort to shift public attention to the company’s innovative new products rather than the flaws in its current ones.

That Mr. Toyoda even traveled to Detroit was a sign of how serious the situation remained for his family’s company after a year of muddling through the biggest crisis in its history. Toyota recalled seven million vehicles in the United States last year, and it was the only major carmaker whose sales here declined. They fell 0.4 percent, while sales for the rest of the industry rose 13.4 percent.

To a small group of reporters who interviewed him later Monday with the help of a translator, Mr. Toyoda carefully explained how Toyota’s employees would put their “heart and soul” into every vehicle, “just as mothers make rice bowls for their children.” He held up plastic-wrapped meals that he compared with American sandwiches.

Mr. Toyoda insisted repeatedly that Toyota had resolved the deficiencies that allowed last year’s recalls to occur. He talked about newly revealed plans to build a research center in Michigan that would work to make all vehicles safer, not just Toyota’s, and discussed his vision for making Toyota cars and trucks “better looking.”

But analysts say the company will not be able to put its sudden quality problems into the past quite so easily.

Rebecca Lindland, with the research firm IHS Automotive, said she had reduced her forecast for Toyota’s sales through 2025, which is as far into the future as IHS currently projects. She predicted Toyota’s market share in the United States would fall below 15 percent by 2015, from 15.2 percent in 2010.

“There are going to be consequences for a while still,” Ms. Lindland said. “Their halo has been broken, particularly for younger buyers that didn’t grow up with the Toyota mystique.”

The two biggest recalls last year were related to complaints about sudden acceleration, with Toyota cars and trucks supposedly speeding out of control, in some cases crashing and injuring or killing their occupants. Federal regulators fined the company $48.8 million for reacting too slowly on that matter and on an unrelated 2005 recall.

A recent survey by the influential publication Consumer Reports, measuring perceptions about automakers, shows that the recalls significantly dented Toyota’s previously sparkling reputation. Just 19 percent of respondents listed Toyota as having the highest quality in this year’s survey, down from 30 percent a year ago, dropping it to third place from first in that category.

Toyota narrowly held off the Ford Motor Company to rank first over all in the survey, saved only by its high scores on environmental friendliness. “For a company whose processes were scrutinized for decades by the competition and taught in colleges, this is a tough blow,” the report said.

David Champion, who heads the Consumer Reports auto testing center, said quality problems began to appear long before last year’s recalls. In 2007, the publication stopped automatically recommending new Toyota models.

“Toyota got to very dizzy heights and basically took the foot off the gas,” Mr. Champion said. “They’re still a very good manufacturer, but they’ve really got to get back to working rather than resting on their coattails.”

Toyota executives say expanding the Prius lineup shows they are working hard to offer more options and satisfy consumers, and Mr. Champion said he does see Toyota becoming more responsive under Mr. Toyoda, who took over in 2009.

After the recalls, the company installed a North American quality chief and gave American executives more authority to make decisions rather than just report information back to the headquarters in Japan.

The actions, among other steps aimed at becoming more responsive to customers, led to Toyota making a total of 18 separate recalls last year, double its previous record. The frequency of the recalls compounded the company’s image problems, but executives point to the fact that they were being initiated much faster than in the past, with the goal of improving quality and safety.

“We are a totally different company today than when this crisis took place,” James E. Lentz, Toyota’s top executive in the United States, said. “I’m not really sure it could happen today.”

2011年1月9日 星期日

中風「FAST」笑手話時----無什麼大用處

這是少數有Time的資訊
然而它不是時間序列 所以無什麼大用處

"笑手話時"等或許比較容易了解和記憶
****

"天冷增加中風機率,衛生署國民健康局呼籲民眾牢記「FAST」,辨別中風四步驟:「F」是FACE,請患者微笑,觀察兩邊臉是否對稱。「A」是ARM,請 患者將雙手抬高平舉,觀察其中一隻手是否會無力垂下來。「S」是SPEECH,請患者讀一句話是否清晰完整,當三者症狀出現一種時,就要趕快送醫。「T」 是TIME,要明確記下發作時間。"

2011年1月7日 星期五

老健學: Eating Healthier Means Living Longer

《中英對照讀新聞》Older people who eat healthy diets lead longer lives 老年人飲食健康較長壽

◎國際新聞中心

Older people who follow healthy diets may live longer, a study suggests. Research in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found those who ate a low-fat diet that contained lots of fruit and vegetables lowered their risk of dying over 10 years.

研究顯示,遵循健康飲食的老人可能比較長壽。刊登在美國飲食協會期刊的研究發現,吃富含蔬果的低脂飲食者,降低了他們10年間的死亡風險。

The study compared the diets of 2,500 US adults aged 70 to 79. Those who ate a high fat diet rich in ice cream, cheese, and whole milk, had the highest risk of death.

研究比較美國2500名70到79歲的成年人,吃很多冰淇淋、起司、全脂牛奶的高脂飲食者,死亡風險最高。

Participants were split into six different groups, according to how often they ate certain foods. The groups were: healthy foods; high-fat diary products; meat, fried foods and alcohol; breakfast cereal; refined grains and sweets and desserts.

參加者根據多常吃特定食物分成6個不同組別,這些組別是,健康食物、高脂乳製品、肉類、油炸食物與酒精、早餐穀片、精緻穀類與甜點及甜食。

Researchers found that those who followed a predominantly high fat, dairy products diet, had a higher death risk than those in the healthy food group. No significant differences in death risk were seen between the "healthy foods" eaters and the "breakfast cereal" or "refined grains" eaters.

研究人員發現,主要遵循高脂肪乳製品飲食者,死亡風險比健康食物族群高。吃健康食物、早餐穀類或精緻穀類這幾個族群的死亡風險,並沒有太顯著的差異。

新聞辭典

refined: 形容詞,精緻的。例句:Eating a diet high in refined foods can lead to undernourishment, fatigue and weight gain.(吃含太多精緻食物的飲食,會導致營養不足、倦怠與體重增加。)

rich:形容詞,富於……的,有很多……的。例句:Pineapple juice is rich in vitamins A and B.(鳳梨汁富含維他命A與B。)

predominantly:副詞,主要地。例句:She is predominantly a dancer, but she also sings.(她主要是舞者,不過她也唱歌。)


Press Release

Eating Healthier Means Living Longer

2010年12月22日

According to New Study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association

Media Contacts: Ryan O'Malley, Allison MacMunn
800/877-1600, ext. 4802, 4769
media@eatright.org

St. Louis, MO – The leading causes of death have shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. These illnesses may be affected by diet. In a study published in the January 2011 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers investigated empirical data regarding the associations of dietary patterns with mortality through analysis of the eating patterns of over 2500 adults between the ages of 70 and 79 over a ten-year period. They found that diets favoring certain foods were associated with reduced mortality.

By 2030, an estimated 973 million adults will be aged 65 or older worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary patterns of a large and diverse group of older adults, and to explore associations of these dietary patterns with survival over a 10-year period. A secondary goal was to evaluate participants' quality of life and nutritional status according to their dietary patterns.

By determining the consumption frequency of 108 different food items, researchers were able to group the participants into six different clusters according to predominant food choices:

  • "Healthy foods" (374 participants)
  • "High-fat dairy products" (332)
  • "Meat, fried foods, and alcohol" (693)
  • "Breakfast cereal" (386)
  • "Refined grains" (458)
  • "Sweets and desserts" (339).

The "Healthy foods" cluster was characterized by relatively higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and vegetables, and lower consumption of meat, fried foods, sweets, high-calorie drinks, and added fat. The "High fat dairy products" cluster had higher intake of foods such as ice cream, cheese, and 2% and whole milk and yogurt, and lower intake of poultry, low-fat dairy products, rice, and pasta.

The study was unique in that it evaluated participants' quality of life and nutritional status, through detailed biochemical measures, according to their dietary patterns. After controlling for gender, age, race, clinical site, education, physical activity, smoking, and total calorie intake, the "High-fat dairy products" cluster had a 40% higher risk of mortality than the "Healthy foods" cluster. The "Sweets and desserts" cluster had a 37% higher risk. No significant differences in risk of mortality were seen between the "Healthy foods" cluster and the "Breakfast cereal" or "Refined grains" clusters.

According to lead author Amy L. Anderson, Ph.D., Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, the "results of this study suggest that older adults who follow a dietary pattern consistent with current guidelines to consume relatively high amounts of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry and fish, may have a lower risk of mortality. Because a substantial percentage of older adults in this study followed the 'Healthy foods' dietary pattern, adherence to such a diet appears a feasible and realistic recommendation for potentially improved survival and quality of life in the growing older adult population."

The article is "Dietary patterns and survival of older adults" by Amy L Anderson, Ph.D.; Tamara B Harris, M.D., M.S.; Frances A Tylavsky, Dr.P.H.; Sara E Perry, M.A., M.P.H.; Denise K Houston, Ph.D., R.D.; Trisha F Hue, M.P.H.; Elsa S Strotmeyer, Ph.D., M.P.H.; and Nadine R Sahyoun, Ph.D., R.D. It appears in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 111, Issue 1 (January 2011) published by Elsevier.


2011年1月1日 星期六

Textile titan, Roger Milliken, dies紐約時報一向對商業界人士如此

約1998年 宏遠訪織公司的葉總經理讓我更深入了解Roger Milliken先生
我以後找到相關的資料在貼上

**********紐約時報一向對商業界人士如此

Roger Milliken, Conservative Tycoon, Dies at 95

Roger Milliken, a South Carolina textile magnate who supported conservative causes and was instrumental in building the state into a bastion of the Republican Party, died Thursday in Spartanburg, S.C. He was 95.
United Press International

Roger Milliken in 1964.

Mr. Milliken, a billionaire whose Milliken & Company was based in Spartanburg and was one of the largest textile and chemical firms in the nation, manufactured materials used in products as varied as flame-resistant gear for firefighters and the balloons in the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade. One of his products gives Jell-O pudding its smooth creaminess.

He was a generous supporter of conservative Republicans and an early backer of Barry Goldwater’s 1964 run for president.

Beginning in the 1960s, Mr. Milliken provided the financial and intellectual muscle that helped the Republican Party come to dominate politics in South Carolina, which had been a Democratic Party preserve since Reconstruction.

He maintained close ties with a generation of conservative Republican senators who for decades dominated Southern politics, including Jesse Helms of North Carolina and South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond, whom Mr. Milliken is sometimes credited with helping to persuade to switch from the Democratic to the Republican Party in 1964.

Mr. Milliken was a Republican delegate to eight national conventions, most recently in 1984. In 2008, he supported Duncan L. Hunter, a California congressman, for the Republican presidential nomination.

Mr. Milliken, who was born in New York City on Oct. 24, 1915, took over the family’s textile business in 1947 after the death of his father, Gerrish. The company was co-founded by his grandfather Seth Milliken in 1865.

Mr. Milliken studied French history at Yale University and was known for quoting economic theorists like Adam Smith and Friedrich List, and for warning about what he regarded as the link between nations that allowed their manufacturing bases to decline and the demise of those nations.

Mr. Milliken, who was a vocal opponent of the North American Free Trade Agreement, was seen toward the end of his life as an almost quixotic figure as he sought to protect South Carolina’s textile industry from lower-priced foreign competitors.

While other American textile mills have succumbed to international competition during the past 25 years or so, the focus of Mr. Milliken’s company on innovation helped it prosper. The company has produced more than 2,000 patents and developed the largest textile research center in the world, according to the company’s Web site.

One of the ways Mr. Milliken kept costs down was by aggressively fighting efforts to unionize his workers.

In 1956, he closed a textile mill in Darlington, S.C., after workers there voted to form a union. He was sued by the employees, and after a lengthy court battle he was ordered to pay a $5 million settlement.

Mr. Milliken pushed for racial integration at Wofford College in Spartanburg in the 1960s, volunteering to support the college financially if its acceptance of black students drove other financial backers away. The college eventually integrated voluntarily.

He was also a supporter of the arts and became well known in Spartanburg for his love of trees, friends said. In 1999, he established the Noble Tree Foundation to encourage the planting of trees in the area, particularly in rundown neighborhoods.

Mr. Milliken also gave millions of dollars to local educational institutions, including Wofford College and Converse College, also in Spartanburg.

Mr. Milliken’s wife of 55 years, Justine Van Rensselaer Hooper, died in 2003. He is survived by two daughters, Justine Russell and Nancy Milliken; three sons, Roger Jr., David and Weston; and nine grandchildren.




Textile titan, Roger Milliken, dies
Greenville News
Early on, he recognized the value of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's work in Japan, they said. Company officials said that by following the tenets, ..

.
By David Dykes • Staff writer • Published: December 30. 2010 7:43PM Roger Milliken, a national textile baron who played a sweeping role in South Carolina’s economic and political history, has died at 95.The...

***

Roger Milliken, who parlayed his family's South Carolina textile business into the kind of wealth that can bankroll major charities and political candidates, died Thursday at age 95, according to a news release from the company.

The Spartanburg icon ran Milliken & Co. for almost 60 years, as president from 1947-83, chairman and CEO from 1983-2003, and chairman from 2003 until his death.

He was a fixture on Forbes magazine's list of richest Americans.

"We are in a profound state of sadness," said Milliken CEO Joe Salley.

"We will miss him greatly."

Milliken, born Oct. 24, 1915, was married to the late Justine Van Rensselaer Hooper. They are survived by five children and nine grandchildren.

"Daddy lived a rewarding ninety-five years," his children said in a news release. "We are grateful, as was he, for the friendship and support from so many that enabled him to live a full, productive, creative, and passionate life. He enjoyed every minute of it."

Milliken & Co., founded in 1865 and headquartered in Spartanburg, manufactures technical and industrial materials, chemicals and floor coverings.

A bitter foe of unions, Milliken ran an international company but opposed the North American Free Trade Act as unfair to U.S. workers.

A staunch Republican, Milliken helped bankroll the 1992 effort of Pat Buchanan to unseat incumbent President George H.W. Bush. Milliken also has spent millions modernizing his family's textile plants and millions more planting trees, a private passion.

In 1999, the industry's trade publication "Textile World" selected him as the textile industry's Leader of the Century. He was also an inaugural inductee to the American Textile Hall of Fame.

In 1999, Milliken established the Noble Tree Foundation to encourage the planting of enduring and beautiful trees, particularly in rundown or overlooked corners of the Greenville-Spartanburg area and at traffic interchanges. In 2004, Milliken received the Frederick Law Olmsted Award, one of the highest honors bestowed by the National Arbor Day Foundation.

With his help, the entire Wofford College campus was declared a National Arboretum, later named for him. The science center at the Spartanburg college also sports his name.

He was the only chairman of the Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport Commission from its inception in 1959 until his death, and he was instrumental in the founding of Spartanburg Day School in 1957. Read more: http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2010/12/30/1944900/sc-textile-leader-roger-milliken.html#ixzz19er6Z9jq

**** 少數 Wikipedia 還沒更新的

Roger Milliken (born October 24, 1915) is a U.S. textile heir whose grandfather founded a small textile company, and who ended up acquiring financially strapped cotton mills as well as failed department stores which eventually merged into the Mercantile Department Store chain. Milliken attended Yale University.

He inherited the company in 1947. Today Milliken & Co. is the largest privately-held textile firm in the world.

The firm grew through product innovation and development as well as superior customer service. Milliken, who resides in Spartanburg, South Carolina, is known for the millions of dollars he has donated to the Republican Party over many years as well as his fierce opposition to unionization. However, his unfailing commitment to manufacture products in America has put him at odds with free trade Republicans and caused him to join with United States trade unions to protect US workers. He initiated the "Made with Pride in the USA" programs in the 1990s.

Milliken served as one of three industrial advisers to 1996 Presidential campaign of Patrick J. Buchanan. In 2000 election, when Buchanan ran as the Reform Party Presidential candidate, Milliken raised a significant proportion of the campaign's total funds. [1]

In the past ten years, Milliken has donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to conservative politicians and political action committees including Sharp Pencil PAC [2], Bob Barr Leadership Fund, Peace Through Strength PAC [3], Fund for America's Future [4], and Freedom's Defense Fund.[5][6] [7] In the 2008 presidential campaign, Milliken backed California congressman Duncan Hunter. Hunter campaigned in opposition to illegal immigration and in support of economic protectionism, as Buchanan did before.

Mr. Milliken was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 2000. In 2004, Wofford College announced the creation of a faculty award named after Milliken, and in 2008, celebrated its first annual "Roger Milliken Day." Also in his honor, Upstate South Carolina's major airport (GSP) has been named "Roger Milliken Field."

References

  1. ^ Milliken Donations to Buchanan. Information retrieved from Opensecrets.org. May 18, 2007.
  2. ^ Political Action Committees
  3. ^ Political Action Committees
  4. ^ Political Action Committees
  5. ^ Freedom's Defense Fund - SourceWatch
  6. ^ Roger Milliken campaign donations during 2006 election cycle. Opensecrets.org. Retrieved May 18, 2007.
  7. ^ Roger Milliken campaign donations during 2000 election cycle. Opensecrets.org. Retrieved August 27, 2007.

External links

Persondata NAME Milliken, Roger ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH 紐約時報一向對商業界人士如此








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