新經濟學與台灣戴明圈: The New Economics and A Taiwanese Deming Circle

「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2018年11月16日 星期五

Redefining the Kilogram kilogram定義改定成 物理定数,


表面の汚れや傷で重さがわずかに変わる可能性がある分銅「国際キログラム原器」から、物理学の「プランク定数」へ。重さの単位「キログラム」の定義が約130年ぶりに変更されました。


2018.11.16
BREAKING





Redefining the Kilogram

Officials will vote to overhaul the SI system of measurements, basing units such as the kilogram not on physical objects but on fundamental constants

By Clara Moskowitz | Scientific American November 2018 Issue

Kilogram No. 20, in the U.S., is one of several “working standards.” Credit: Science Source


The kilogram is shrinking.

The official object that defines the mass of a kilogram is a tiny, 139-year-old cylinder of platinum and iridium that resides in a triple-locked vault near Paris. Because it is so important, scientists almost never take it out; instead they use copies called working standards. But the last time they did inspect the real kilogram, they found it is roughly five parts in 100 million heavier than all the working standards, which have been leaving behind a few atoms of metal every time they are put on scales. This is one of the reasons the kilogram may soon be redefined not by a physical object but through calculations based on fundamental constants.

“This [shrinking] is the kind of thing that happens when you have an object that needs to be conserved in order to have a standard,” says Peter Mohr, a physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), who serves on the committee that oversees the International System of Units (SI). “Fundamental constants, on the other hand, are not going to change over time.”
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The redefinition of the kilogram will be part of a planned larger overhaul to make SI units fully dependent on constants of nature. Representatives from 57 countries will vote on the proposed change this month at a conference in Versailles, France, and the new rules are expected to pass. Along with the kilogram, the ampere (the unit of electric current), kelvin (temperature) and mole (amount of a substance) will get new definitions. The four will be based on Planck's constant, the elementary charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively. All these constants are determined by laboratory measurements, which have some inherent uncertainty. But if the vote is successful, countries using SI will agree on a fixed value for each constant based on the best data available and use them to derive the units.

What will happen to the old kilogram artifacts after the redefinition? Rather than packing them off to museums, scientists plan to keep studying how they fare over time. “There is so much measurement history on these,” says physicist Stephan Schlamminger of NIST. “It would be irresponsible to not continue to measure them.”

2018年11月13日 星期二

設計問題無知及隱瞞:日本普悠瑪、 Boeing 737 Model



日本普悠瑪設計有缺失.......

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FAA回應獅航客機墜毀事件,就波音的安全分析展開調查



New Questions Swirl Over Boeing on Updated 737 Model That Crashed
New Questions Swirl Over Boeing on Updated 737 Model That Crashed
By HANNAH BEECH, HIROKO TABUCHI, JAMES GLANZ and ZACH WICHTER
The airplane manufacturer did not provide airlines and pilots with full information about a new emergency system on the plane.


Two U.S. pilots’ unions say the potential risks of a safety feature on Boeing’s 737 Max aircraft that has been linked to a deadly crash in Indonesia weren’t sufficiently spelled out to in their manuals or training.




Boeing withheld information about potential hazards associated with a flight system suspected of having a role in the recent Lion Air crash off Indonesia, experts say.



2018年11月4日 星期日

四健會 1958 改良爐灶節省燃料,

民國47年四健會推行改良爐灶節省燃料,相片是當時豊年雜誌封面
秋惠文庫 Formosa Vintage Museum
歷史博物館

網誌存檔