「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2009年7月31日 星期五

W. Edwards Deming in Statistics Dictionary (Oxford)

W. Edwards Deming

Variant: Ed William Deming

(1900–93; b. Sioux City, IA; d. Washington, DC.) American engineer and statistician. Deming was a pioneer of quality control. He was voted by business staff of the Los Angeles Times as being one of the 50 most influential business people of the century, though he described himself as 'Consultant in Statistical Studies'. He studied electrical engineering at U Wyoming, graduating in 1921. As a summer job he worked for the Western Electric Company in Chicago where he encountered Shewhart's work on quality control. He obtained his MS in mathematics and mathematical physics from U Colorado in 1925 and his PhD from Yale U in 1928. He began working first for the US Department of Agriculture and then for the US Bureau of the Census. In 1947 he spent three months in Japan helping with the Japanese census. On his return to Japan in 1950 he gave an extended course in quality control; the course was so successful and influential that he was invited back on many occasions, being received by Emperor Hirohito and awarded the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure. He was President of the IMS in 1945. In 1955 he was awarded the Shewhart Medal of the ASQ, in 1983 the Wilks Award of the ASA, and in 1987 the National Medal for Technology. He once wrote 'The only useful function of a statistician is to make predictions and thus to provide a basis for action'.

Statistics Dictionary

Information on all aspects of statistics, including terms used in computing, mathematics, operational research, and probability; biographical information on over 200 key figures in the field; and coverage of statistical journals and societies. Useful for students and professionals involved in politics, market research, medicine, psychology, pharmaceuticals, mathematics and other disciplines.
On this page: D'Agostino, Ralph Benedict to Dirichlet tessellation.

Title Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
D: A 1 2 Next >

2009年7月25日 星期六

三頭六臂集 689-693


Breakthrough Business Results With MVT: A Fast, Cost-Free, "Secret Weapon" for Boosting Sales, Cutting Expenses, and Improving Any Business Process
Charles W. Holland with David Cochran
John S. Wiley & Son (2005)

Holland calls the Multivariable Testing (MTV™) system “the greatest business improvement methodology ever devised” and it was soon obvious to me that Holland really believes that MTV™ really can be and do all that. He cites a number of examples to verify his claim. They include American Express, Boise Cascade, Deluxe, RR Donnelly & Sons, DuPont, Lowe’s, and SBC. He also cites the impressive fact that, years ago, W. Edwards Deming strong recommended him to Ford Motor Company to train managers and suppliers in statistical thinking and quality improvement methods. Since then, his company (QualPro) has been retained by more than 1,000 corporations and completed more than 13,000 projects to provide a range of consulting services that help them to (yes) boost sales, cut expenses, and improve various business processes. “Our experience proves that the results of any process can be improved using MTV if two criteria are met: (1) the process has measurable output and (2) the people in the organization have [their own ideas] about how to improve results.”

The MTV process “is basically testing a lot of different variables/solutions/business improvement ideas all at the same time. When applied to a business problem, it is a 12-step process that starts with dozens of practical, fast, cost-free ideas for improvement and uses advanced statistics to quickly sort out the ideas that will help from the ideas that will hurt or make no difference.” Holland goes on to explain that the essence of an MTV improvement project is rigorous, quantifiable, accelerated learning and the knowledge and understand that result allow organizations to focus their energies on only those actions that matter and make breakthrough improvements in a short time. It is critical that a monitoring system be established to ensure compliance with the new procedure. This ensures that the organization realizes the same dramatic benefits that were achieved during testing.” Holland thoroughly explains the entire MVT process step by step.



Lex 2009-07-24

Wendelin Wiedeking is the Sir Fred Goodwin of Germany. Like Sir Fred, the unassuming-looking Mr Wiedeking once did great things, turning near-bankrupt Porsche into a hugely profitable company. Then his audacious takeover attempt of Volkswagen collapsed under the weight of its debts. Mr Wiedeking is now driving off with a €50m bonus, although schadenfreude may soon replace outrage: he could be dragged before the courts. Other German executives, such as Klaus Esser of Mannesmann, have faced judges over far smaller sums.

The common view is that Mr Wiedeking's departure is also a defeat for Porsche, now saddled with €10bn of debt. But this ignores the broader interests of the Porsche family that a) still controls the sports car maker, which owns 51 per cent of VW, plus options over another 20 per cent, and b) includes VW's very own chairman, Ferdinand Piëch, who wants to leave his family an extraordinary legacy: a recombined Porsche/VW.

With Mr Wiedeking gone, Mr Piëch has had to opt for a less confrontational strategy. Its first step requires recapitalising Porsche SE, the indebted holding company. To do this, the family will “contribute” Porsche Austria, its unlisted car parts distributor, worth some €3bn, into the holding. Ordinary shareholders will meanwhile inject cash via a capital raising. Then the Qataris will take on most of Porsche SE's options over VW; this is their passport into Germany's industrial heartland. Finally, VW will buy a small stake in Porsche AG, the carmaker owned by the holding. This will release cash to Porsche SE. The end result will be a debt-free Porsche SE, owning 51 per cent of VW alongside its minority partners the state of Lower Saxony, with 20 per cent, and the Qataris. The final step is to merge Porsche SE with VW. Even if the Porsche family does not end up with a majority, it will still be VW's largest investor, a remarkable feat. VW, meanwhile, gets the stable investor base it has long craved. It will be impregnable.


英国《金融时报》Lex专栏(Lex) 2009-07-24

文德林•魏德金(Wendelin Wiedeking)就是德国的弗雷德•古德温爵士(Sir Fred Goodwin)。和弗雷德爵士一样,外表谦和的魏德金也曾有过丰功伟绩,将几近破产的保时捷(Porsche)转变为一家极具盈利能力的公司。之后,他 大胆收购大众(Volkswagen)的尝试在债务重压下宣告失败。如今魏德金带着5000万欧元的丰厚奖金离去。不过,幸灾乐祸可能很快就会取代愤怒: 魏德金有可能被告上法庭。其他几位德国高管,例如曼内斯曼(Mannesmann)的克劳斯•埃塞尔(Klaus Esser),就曾因为小得多的奖金数额被诉诸法庭。

普遍看法是,魏德金的离开也是保时捷的一项失败——该公司如今背负着100亿欧元的债务。但这种看法忽视了保时捷家族更广泛的权益:其一,该家族仍 然控制着跑车制造商保时捷,而保时捷持有大众51%的股权,以及另外20%股权的认购期权;其二,大众的董事长费迪南德•皮耶希(Ferdinand Piëch)本身也是该家族的一员,他希望能给家族留下一笔非凡的遗产——重新合并的保时捷/大众。

魏德金离开后,皮耶希不得不选择一种较为温和的战略。第一步要做的,就是对负债累累的控股公司保时捷SE进行资本重组。为此,保时捷家族将“贡献” 出价值约30亿欧元的未上市汽车部件分销商Porsche Austria,并入控股公司。与此同时,普通股东将通过资金募集进行注资。然后,卡塔尔人将接手保时捷SE的大部分大众认购期权,这是他们进军德国工业 核心地带的通行证。最后,大众将购买保时捷SE旗下的汽车制造商保时捷AG的少量股份,给保时捷SE带来现金。最终结果会是,偿清债务的保时捷SE将持有 大众51%的股权,其它持有少数权益的合伙人包括持有20%股权的下萨克森州政府以及卡塔尔人。最后一步是将保时捷SE与大众合并。即便保时捷家族最终没 能获得多数股权,他们也仍将是大众的最大投资者,这本身也是一项傲人功绩。而大众将获得渴望已久的稳定投资者基础。它将变得坚不可摧。


Lessons in smiling that have left me open-mouthed

By Lucy Kellaway 2009-07-27


In Japan, workers are being subjected to a new sort of control – computer scanning to see if their smiles are wide enough. Every day, staff at 15 railway stations in Tokyo are having to bare their teeth at a computer that rates the curvaceousness of their smile on a scale of one to 100. For those who can't muster a broad enough grin, the computer issues directions on how to improve performance. Lift up the corners of your mouth more, it orders. Staff are then given a print-out of their best smile to refer to as needed.

Oddly, the very same day that I read about the smile police in the east I received an e-mail from the west about a less coercive but no less enthusiastic attempt to get us to beam at each other. Smile and Move is a movement based in Richmond, Virginia, that is peddling its message on Facebook, Twitter, mugs, books, posters and videos. On YouTube, there is a three-minute video trying to brainwash us into smiling. “Love it! Keep it up!” say the comments posted on the site. Later on that same day, I cycled to the dentist and in the waiting room picked up a copy of The Times. The main feature showed a life coach photographed with a pencil clamped between his jaws demonstrating how to improve our smiles.

What is going on? I wondered. Should we all be smiling more?

Certainly not, is the view of the British public. Last week, the BBC website asked people whether they would like more customer service to come with a smile. They mainly replied that no, they would not. They weren't anti-smiling per se, they were anti-smiling-to-order. One man said that if someone was smiling at him for no reason he'd want to knock his block off. Almost everyone agreed that smiling inanely was creepy and made people look like the Stepford Wives – a fake smile was worse than none at all.

While I'm profoundly British in temperament, I'm with the Japanese and Americans on smiling. People serving others should smile more. In fact, anyone who wants to make themselves amiable and get what they want should smile more. I disagree that faking is bad – it is part of what it is to be a good employee.

A smile isn't a gesture of spontaneous joy, it's a social thing. A fascinating experiment was done in a bowling alley that showed that when people get a strike they do not smile as they watch the pins come clattering down. It is only when they turn to face others that their faces crack.

We smile to communicate a message. If you put two macaque monkeys in a cage, they start off pretty tense, as even the slightest movement will have them tearing each other to pieces. After staring at the floor, one of them will bare its teeth at the other to indicate non-aggression. If the other bares its teeth back, the next minute they are stroking each other's fur.

With humans, smiles work in the same way. A smile from someone in a shop, say, is a reassuring gesture and a prelude if not to grooming, then at least to conducting business.

As I sat in the cage of the dentist's waiting room, I watched two other patients arrive. One looked at me and smiled and the other marched straight in and sat down, avoiding eye contact. If I had to start a fight with one of them, I know which it would be.

Smiling comes more naturally to some people than to others and the problem is how best to get unsmiley people to smile more. The Japanese way is flawed not because it's like Big Brother but because it wrongly assumes that a bigger smile is a better one. Last week, I had lunch in a fashionable new Italian canteen in Soho, and the Marlon Brando lookalike who made my tea was unsmiling until, at the last minute, he curled the corners of his lips a fraction. It was more rewarding than if he had given me the full monty.

项新式管理——接受电脑扫描,看他们笑得是否足够灿烂。每天,东京15个火车站的员工都必须在电脑前露齿而笑,由电脑对他们笑 容的甜美程度打分,分值从1到100不等。对于那些笑得不够充分的人,电脑会发出有关如何改善的指令。它会命令道:“嘴角再翘一点儿”。之后,员工会获得 一份打印出来的最佳笑容图,以便需要时参考。

奇怪地是,就在我读到东方实施笑容管制消息的当天,收到了一封来自西方的电子邮件,内容是关于一项没那么强制性、但同样热情的尝试:让我们互相微 笑。“Smile and Move”是一项源自弗吉尼亚州里士满的运动,正通过Facebook、Twitter、杯子、书、海报以及视频等传递着讯息。YouTube上有一个3 分钟的视频,试图说服我们微笑。“爱上微笑!保持微笑!”该网站上的贴子上如是说。当天晚些时候,我骑车去看牙,在等候的地方,随手拿起了一份《泰晤士 报》(The Times)。上面一篇重头特稿展示了一位生活教练用上下颚夹紧铅笔,演示如何改进笑容的照片。


在英国民众的心目中,当然不是这样。上周,英国广播公司(BBC)网站询问他们:是否希望更多的客户服务伴随着笑容而来?他们大部分都回答说不,他 们不希望这样。他们不是反对微笑本身,而是反对标准化的笑容。一位男士表示,如果有人无缘无故地对他笑,他会想去扁他。几乎所有人都认为,空洞的笑令人毛 骨耸然,并且会让人看上去像电影《复制娇妻》(Stepford wives)——假笑还不如不笑。



我们笑是为了传达讯息。如果你把两只猕猴关在一个笼子里,刚开始它们会非常紧张,因为即使是一个最微小的动作,也会让它们把对方撕成碎块。在注视了 一段时间地板之后,其中一只猕猴会向另一只露出自己的牙齿,表明没有侵犯的意思。如果另一只也以露齿作为回应,那么,接下来它们很快将会开始互相抚摸。



对于有些人而言,微笑比其他人来得更自然,问题在于,如何才是让不苟言笑的人多笑的最佳方式。日本的方法存在缺陷,并非因为它像《老大哥》(Big Brother,有严格监控别人活动之意——译者注),而是因为它错误地假定笑得越充分越好。上周,我在伦敦Soho区一家时尚的新意大利餐厅用午餐,那 个为我上茶的小伙子长得像马龙•白兰度(Marlon Brando),面无笑容,直到最后一分钟,他的嘴角才开始微微翘起。这比他露齿大笑的效果更好。

Holding a pencil in your mouth is still worse as a smile enhancer. My husband constantly wanders around the house pen clamped between his teeth, not to help the curvature of his smile but because it's where he stows the pen when not in use. I find the sight of him like this so annoying, that I quite often try to wrest it out from his tightly locked jaws – a tussle that ends with no one smiling.

The answer on smiling came to me as I finished my spell in the dentist's chair. It is to have better looking teeth. I have recently spent a not inconsiderable sum on having my teeth bleached, and even though it hasn't worked as well as I'd like, I'm smiling a lot more to try to get value from my investment.

There is a significant statistical correlation between what the scientists call “smile-related quality of life” and the state of one's teeth. I have found a study that shows those with mobile teeth, missing teeth or deep gum pockets barely smile at all.

One of the saddest messages on the BBC website was from a former maths teacher who could not afford to have the two crowns at the front of his mouth replaced. “My smile, my teeth are all part of what makes me a good teacher. So now I am a virtual recluse – on the scrap heap of life.”

Unlike the maths teacher, Gordon Brown could afford to get his teeth fixed and smiles all the time. So much so that he is now ready for the smiling advanced class: learning how to identify the occasions on which smiling is not appropriate.





与这位数学老师不同,戈登•布朗(Gordon Brown)支付得起固定牙齿的费用,因而能够一直保持微笑。他笑得太多了,以至于现在已准备进修高级微笑课程:学会如何识别哪些场合不适合微笑。


Six Sigma: Changing organizations for the better

  • Date: July 20th, 2009
  • Author: Rick Freedman
The Six Sigma philosophy, which has been implemented by such companies as GE and American Express, starts with a very simple and obvious idea: defects cost money. Learn more about the philosophy in this high-level overview.


The TV connection

In 1967, Motorola released its Quasar model, which was the first all-transistor TV sold in America. The innovative design featured modular, solid-state components in a drawer that could be pulled out and serviced, enabling technicians to access and replace parts quickly and more efficiently. It was plagued with so many quality issues that any productivity gains enabled by the new design were eroded by the need for constant warranty repairs just to keep customers’ TVs working.

Motorola management proved unable to resolve the quality problems with the Quasar TV, so the company decided its best option was to sell the brand, thus beginning the migration of consumer electronics from the United States to Japan. In 1974, Motorola sold its TV division to Matsushita, the Japanese company now known as Panasonic.

Using quality concepts that were gaining wide acceptance in Japan — including Total Quality Management (TQM) ideas that originally imported into Japan by American advisors such as W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran — Matsushita management was able to reduce defects by 95%, using existing Motorola designs, work-teams, and technology. Matsushita management demonstrated that the problem was management’s fundamental approach to manufacturing; this inspired a member of that Motorola management team to later admit, “Our quality stinks!”

The beginning

Out of adversity, Motorola sensed opportunity. Bob Galvin, Motorola’s CEO at the time, began the development of a quality program that evolved into Six Sigma; it turned Galvin into a business celebrity, and it eventually led Motorola to win the first Balridge National Quality Award in 1988. Galvin used Motorola’s recognition to publicize his firm’s Six Sigma programs, which have since been adopted by such organizations as GE and American Express, as well as hundreds of smaller firms worldwide. While Motorola has struggled of late in its core businesses, its business line of training Six Sigma practitioners from other firms has been a constant growth area.

The evolution

Statisticians will recognize the concept of sigma, or the Greek letter σ, which signifies the variability in a process or a statistical sampling. In its most mathematical application, sigma is used by efficiency experts to measure companies’ performance by analyzing the number of defects in its manufacturing procedures. The Six Sigma standard of 3.4 problems per million opportunities represents about as error free a process as humans can deliver, and it’s a far cry from the 67,000 defects that typical companies previously accepted as the norm.

This use of statistical language often leads to the unfortunate conclusion that Six Sigma is a dry and mechanical method, solely focused on driving errors and defects out of manufacturing processes. While defect reduction is an element of the Six Sigma approach, Six Sigma has evolved from a statistical quality-control method to a customer-focused philosophy that challenges organizations to change strategies, focus, internal procedures, and business models. As Rey Moré, Motorola’s Chief Quality Officer, told the 2009 iSixSigma Conference, Six Sigma has evolved from metric, to methodology, to a catalyst to drive change in the organization.

The philosophy

Six Sigma (as currently practiced) is focused on improving quality in all business endeavors, from manufacturing and assembly of products to customer sales and service. The Six Sigma philosophy starts with a very simple and obvious idea: defects cost money.

Studies show that organizations operating at lower levels of defect prevention, categorized as three or four sigma in statistical terms, tolerate errors of between about 6,000 to 65,000 defects per million, and, more importantly, spend between 25% and 40% of its revenues fixing these problems. Six Sigma companies, on the other hand, spend about 5% in defect remediation. This “cost of quality” has been one of the key drivers of Six Sigma adoption; Jack Welch of GE fame estimated that GE’s adoption of Six Sigma methods saved the company almost $12 billion annually.

Another core element of the Six Sigma philosophy is the application of science and data, rather than politics and hierarchy, as the driver of change. Just as the requirement for observable, measurable data drives scientific debate about, for example, the efficacy of a new drug, Six Sigma practitioners (often known in the Six Sigma lexicon as “black belts”) insist that decisions that affect the business’ performance, processes, or strategies be based on empirical data, analyzed in a scrupulous manner and tested for veracity in the real world. By applying a simple performance improvement model called Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC), Six Sigma practitioners assist organizations in achieving the highest level of perfection possible in the business environments in which they operate. DMAIC is simply a refinement of the well-known scientific method of inquiry optimized for the business environment.

Practitioners are not naïve enough to believe that simply by applying scientific methods we can squeeze all of the politics, culture, history, and resistance out of an organization. In fact, the modern application of Six Sigma has benefited tremendously from some of the errors of earlier process improvement methods such as Business Process Re-engineering (BPR). Most business analysts now agree that BPR foundered on the idea that processes can be redesigned and optimized without much attention paid to the emotions of, and the impact on, the people involved. Six Sigma practitioners now emphasize this “Change Agent” view of their work as much as, or even more than, the statistical and scientific elements.

Six Sigma Handbook

Tom Pyzdek, author of the comprehensive Six Sigma Handbook, notes that organizations undertaking a Six Sigma program need to change in three domains:

  1. The way people in the organization think: focusing on the individual thoughts, expectations, and conclusions, of the members of the organization;
  2. The norms: often referred to as corporate culture, every organization has standards, models, and patterns which guide behavior;
  3. Systems and processes: this is the core work of the Six Sigma practitioner, but can’t be sustained without the success of the prior two organizational changes.

While the benefits of Six Sigma are compelling, the difficulty and complexity of a far-reaching change program are daunting. Pyzdek suggests that the average time to achieve benefits from a Six Sigma program can be more than three years — a period that many enterprises simply don’t have the organizational patience to endure. Still, companies that do take the plunge are rewarded. For example, in a recent study by the American Society for Quality (ASQ), 90% of hospitals that deployed Six Sigma saw improvement in their admissions and discharge processes. 89% in radiology/imaging and 88 percent in pharmaceutical services . With the current focus on the cost and efficiency of health care in the United States, these results are compelling.


Considering the fact that the Six Sigma Handbook runs to over 800 pages, it should be clear that this introductory article is a condensed fly-by of this complex topic. For those who wish to delve more deeply into this topic, the literature is rich, and organizations such as Motorola University and ASQ offer courses and certifications to aspiring black belts.

Six Sigma has been applied to almost every conceivable business endeavor, from software development to project management, and prepares consultants and managers for one of the most important and difficult tasks any leader can undertake: changing the organization for the better.

J. Stuart Hunter Deming Lecture
"Deming Today"
Tuesday, August 4, 4:00 p.m.

J. Stuart Hunter is professor emeritus of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Princeton University. In addition to a PhD in experimental statistics that he earned in 1954, Hunter holds a BS in electrical engineering and an MS in mathematics from North Carolina State University. Through his numerous groundbreaking technical contributions, Hunter has both expanded the horizons of the applications of statistics in business and industry and made statistical methods more accessible and understandable to countless practitioners. He knew and admired W. Edwards Deming and his work.

2009年7月13日 星期一



剛好滿一年 內湖線的 可用性 一場鬧劇

營運可靠度 "the Most Reliable Metro System"?

為什麼要將這樣狹窄的"可靠度"字彙 "送"給市民呢??


Taipei Metro Once Again Rated the Most Reliable Metro System Among 26 CoMET and Nova Consortiums

uptime, downtime, availability, outage, Blackout!,...

2009年7月12日 星期日

三頭六臂集 670-80







她說,因北縣衛生局在業者紛紛改善後,抽驗重金屬都合格,而且北縣業者已開始依衛生署所訂酸價不能超過2.0(mgKOH/G)自主管理,因此北縣衛生局 目前抽驗重點都在酸價,除非必要才會抽驗重金屬。上周五76家油品化驗結果,有三重市重新路5段漢堡王(2.78)、蘆洲市民族路桔子廚房(2.31)及 永和市保福路1段一級棒串烤(3.53 )等三家業者油品酸價過高,因漢堡王經限期改善複驗合格,另兩家限期改善中,目前尚無業者被罰鍰。






意圖 心地良好並不算什麼

Green good intentions cause chaos in two German towns

Residents near Dortmund were evacuated this week after the ground collapsed
around a geothermal heat pump, while in another German town, almost 190
buildings have now been damaged by a geothermal project gone awry.

The DW-WORLD Article


台灣的馬英九只會耍耍嘴皮 唱些漂亮的名詞 謂將來的投降作準備
譬如說將所謂國共論壇 改稱"兩岸"論壇



7/11 早上1030 在文理大道 上碰到蔡副校長 與他談研究聲放榜.......他大大反對當今企業薪資碩士比學是高數千元作法
過多的人讀碩士 她/她們在大學準備 去前去後 約

me: 保險業有無在談 lean 精實 我在寫明年的書
PeterHsiung: All right, Now we all in sumer vocation, Hopefully, it will be done in this month.
Sent at 6:12 PM on Friday
PeterHsiung: About lean 目前未聽說, 幾年前Atna 及 Prodential UK 推過 ISO, 至於Allianz Taiwan 及 Allianz Group 正在推 OPEX Operational Excellent 很像Lean 只是僅限小規模的專案, 並未全面推動
me: Thanks for the information
PeterHsiung: 沒有, 這是新領域
Sent at 6:18 PM on Friday
me: 好 今天談到這 改天談 by the way 速度和浪費 在貴業如何 last qestion 這以後再說



攝影/莊素玉 黃明堂 


The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics

Michael Friendly

Source: Statist. Sci. Volume 23, Number 4 (2008), 502-535.


Statistical graphics and data visualization have long histories, but their modern forms began only in the early 1800s. Between roughly 1850 and 1900 (±10), an explosive growth occurred in both the general use of graphic methods and the range of topics to which they were applied. Innovations were prodigious and some of the most exquisite graphics ever produced appeared, resulting in what may be called the “Golden Age of Statistical Graphics.”

In this article I trace the origins of this period in terms of the infrastructure required to produce this explosive growth: recognition of the importance of systematic data collection by the state; the rise of statistical theory and statistical thinking; enabling developments of technology; and inventions of novel methods to portray statistical data. To illustrate, I describe some specific contributions that give rise to the appellation “Golden Age.”

Keywords: Data visualization; history of statistics; smoothing; thematic cartography; Francis Galton; Charles Joseph Minard; Florence Nightingale; Francis Walker


The Golden Age of Statistical Graphics

檔案類型: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - HTML 版
the age of modern statistical graphs and maps only began around the beginning of the 19th century. ..... statistical graphics of the Golden Age, even though ...

Rich people

Poor you

Jul 6th 2009
From The Economist print edition

The world's rich are suffering too

THE wealth of the world’s richest people fell by almost a fifth last year to $33 trillion, according to the World Wealth Report from Merrill Lynch and Capgemini. A rich person is defined as having at least $1m of assets besides his main home, its contents and collectable items. The number of rich people shrank by 15% to 8.6m, or 0.1% of the world's population. Their wealth declined by more than 20% in North America, Europe and Asia, but by a bit less in Africa and the Middle East. Latin America’s rich were the least affected: they lost 6% of their wealth, and the number there fell by less than 1%. In North America, which had a large proportion of people just above the $1m threshold, the ranks slimmed by 19%.








林口長庚醫院毒物科主任林杰樑指出,砷可分為無機砷及有機砷,俗稱「砒霜」的無機砷,是一級人體致癌物質,有機砷則是普遍存在於蝦蟹海產中的無害物質,可以使用「高效能液相層析 (HPLC)」區隔二者。




消基會:麥當勞自行送檢樣品無代表性 【7/8 20:25】

〔中央社〕麥當勞炸油被驗出含砷,業者指同一批油送 SGS檢驗合格。消基會今天表示,業者自行送驗的樣品沒代表性,SGS 也表示,無法確認業者送檢樣品與官方抽驗是否為同一批。





吳家誠說,麥當勞土城市中央路店酸價達23.88 (mg KOH/g),並含砷及丙烯醯胺,15天後若確認北縣府公告結果是對的,「對這樣一家賣有害健康的食品給大眾的店,若要他們停業也不為過。」


消費者文教基金會秘書長吳家誠上週四表示,消基會最近抽檢涼麵,發 現其中高達87.5%所含生菌數超過標準。 At a news conference, Wu announced the results of tests on 16 cold noodle samples, four of which were bought from convenience chain stores, with the other ...

2009年7月10日 星期五


讓我想起昔日報人的"我的朋友卜少夫" 序列書






















思想起1984前一年 : 31歲點滴


根據宇宙學家說法,我們這宇宙的年齡約175億年 (我估計,這可能是當今每年全世界在公共場合喝的咖啡杯數,所以我們可說「一歲一杯」.....這是哪一門子的比喻,我放棄合理化.....)

雖然大家知道「人生苦短」,不過,我6月4日聽美國Obama總統在開羅 (Cairo) 的演講 ,還是稍微驚訝......他提到 :

All of us share this world for but a brief moment in time. The question is whether we spend that time focused on what pushes us apart, or whether we commit ourselves to an effort – a sustained effort – to find common ground, to focus on the future we seek for our children, and to respect the dignity of all human beings.





他指引我七本相關的「官方」 紀念出版品(書)。




我(hc或 HC) 31歲時是公元1983年。這兒說的,其實只是1983年的我的一小部份。
1983年究竟是怎樣的一年呢? 那年趙耀東先生當台灣的經濟部長

William Golding ( 1911-1993;1983年諾貝爾文學獎)出版於1967的作品 THE PYRAMID的題詞為:「治民之道,以愛為本;心有愛則生,無愛則死。」(古埃及箴言)學到哲理。Edward Wadie Said的The World, the Text, and the Critic (1983)則要到2009年才(可能)有中文版......2009年逛舊書攤可以看到6巨冊《日本工業設計全書》 ....臺北市立美術館之館1983創立.....

漢清, 你好:
1983年,因為商務考察及基於幾許的好奇心,我踏上了印度之旅, 26年來世界發生巨大的變動,印度也不再神秘,可惜當年我沒留下什麼遊記,只剩下拼湊回憶。幾個月前看過一部得獎的電影「貧民百萬富翁」,多少再勾起一些對印度的回憶!

由於缺日記等相關資料,我只簡單根據一些記憶 (在BLOG上的 1983有些條目),說些1983年的個人的故事。
1981 年 2月9日加入工業技術研究院(ITRI)電子工業研究所 (ERSO), 擔任品質稽查部工程師。組長 (如處長)邱羅火先生,我讀過他取得的石原勝吉 PPM管理的授課講義。當年HC當選ERSO勵進會主委(這是工研院福利會和工會的綜合體,由本所全員選出),做些服務與改革,諸如保險等等業務改革,隔 年1982年成為所內最年輕的經理。這要感謝許多同事、朋友、所長胡定華先生、副所長史欽泰先生、曹興城先生、楊丁元先生。
我 (鍾漢清) 在1981起在劉振老師主編的《品質管制月刊》發表作品 :
(《戴 名世年譜》:「照起工來走」--我們只要讀讀劉振老師編的《施政楷先生品質管制遺作選集》(台北;中華民國民國品質管制學會,1983年),就可以充分了 解什麼叫做『師、友、文章』。我相信,該書編輯之水準與認真,絕對是中華民國民國品質學會此類出版品中空前絕後的。最難能可貴的是,他們的友情和犧牲貢獻 於自己的理想。)

「與大指揮家談品質」(第17卷7期) 這篇很值得介紹 這是取自所內特有的 RCA Engineer 的一篇,訪問費城管弦樂團指揮,談藝術追求完美無缺的文章

我開始整理Philip Taiwan 的工作經驗:「飛利浦品質成本經驗談」鍾漢清,《品質管制月刊》1981年11月......
1983年(民72年),我服務的單位是「工業技術研究院 (ITRI)的電子工業研究所 (ERSO)」。
當 時, ERSO是ITRI中的「大明星」──事實上,我們可能眼中沒有ITRI, 而只有ERSO──不知道有沒有明眼人注意到,「電子工業研究所 」 與ERSO(Electronics Research and Service Organization)之間,字眼不同 : Service是「工業」嗎?”電子工業”是ELECTRONICS嗎?
我們當然知道,我們多以「開發」為主,「研究」為輔 (Big Development, Small Research)這些說法,並無損於ERSO 對台灣電子和資訊產業的貢獻,我深以為曾經是電子所人為榮。
不過, 1983年,可能是ERSO 的事業之高峰.....再來的,可能就是大家熟知的「台灣半導體業之春」的故事.....

1983年,電子所可能近1600-1700人, 而我可能是最年輕的經理人(台灣話說「經理伯」,當時ERSO可能總共35-38位經理) 。
我們部門當時可能只有蘇錦坤先生、助理阿嬌、葉德榮先生、李揚廉先生、林振國先生 溫建章先生、嚴強先生、楊新誼先生,還有楊啟宗先生(故) ,他受過日本教育所以可以幫我們整理點日文資料。
這些朋友其實才是真正的貢獻者 *

不過,現在回首, 我當時是發表的「過動兒」。
譬 如說 ,我可能在中華民國品質管制學會的「品質改善講座」開6小時介紹W. A. Shewhart 之著作(根據Deming1980(?)年6月在書前Dedication的建議)─這本書,我知道是我推薦的,它在1983/9/15 由電子工業研究所圖書館收到 : Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position (1981) by W. Edwards Deming─這位先生的學說,多少改變我1995年以後之發展。

我列一下當年發表在《品質管制月刊》的文章 ,「自動製程檢驗與品質保證」、「高手的小集活動法寶及品管圈經驗談(上)(下)」「品質績效衡量法」 、「RPQ經營法」、 「軟體品質改進」。

在《營建世界》發表 「TQC與營建業」。

在《電子發展月刊》發表「淺說軟體測試 」,「IBM公司半導體製造之品質與可靠性保證系統」(李楊廉、鍾漢清合譯)。
更重要的是我編著《品質成本合理化》(1983/1996),《生產管理實務與策略》(台北:清華管理科學,1983) ,翻譯《可靠性入門》 (台北:徐氏基金會, 1983)─能夠為這了不起的叢書盡一點心力,我很榮幸。

我們當時住竹東的宿舍。晚上圖書館開,幾位朋友是好事之徒(其中有人後來當上所長的邢智田先生和吳國精先生) 就將我們看圖書館的「工讀所得」買一套劉欽興先生再版的《阿山哥與大嬸婆》送圖書館。不知道它們安在否?私底下我們還請電腦專家段先生交我們「作業系統」。


*2009年 6月4日,我讀 Herbert Simon的Models of Thought
作者引蘇格蘭諺語 :「你要與朋友一齊合吃過一車的鹽,才會知道對方。」
我看到一本43期的《正觀》 季刊 ( 目錄 http://www.tt034.org.tw/list.htm#42
(無 43期)─這43期的一半編篇幅登蘇錦坤先生的一篇論文和一篇翻譯。他是我1981-86年電子所的同事─我忝當「主管」數年,卻不知道他的佛學功力,也 不知道會巴利文。他後來到Acer的德國分公司,現在可能是新竹園區某大公司之副總......轉眼20年,他成為佛教研究者和翻譯者..... (他放棄電子所派去交大進修通訓碩士的經歷,應該可以給當今學子參考。)

葉德榮先生 (是第一屆國防役,很喜歡和我抬槓)在1983年時,說不定已離開我們,他十年後為某數位相機公司副總 (鴻海併之) .....




楊 啟宗先生幾年前過世,我在2008年當波若威科技公司顧問時,他女兒是該公司財務經理。我可以談一下楊先生。他當時是所的老幹部(從化工所前身就是員工。 他決定不隨組分出去的 電子儀器檢驗中心 (ETC) 。我不把他當準退休人員。有一次我請他去日本出差。我想他非常高興。
林振國先生是我在台灣飛利浦公司竹北廠服務時(1979-80)的主管。如果他是1983年我挖角進電子所的話,這表示當時我們ERSO的薪資很有競爭力..... 林先生做人做事極穩重。可惜,後來事業有點波折....

1983年,我去一趟日本觀摩「戴明獎」廠商,讓我大開眼界,現在只留一些資訊 :

目的 : TQC 研究會和參觀 YHP工場
日時 : 1983年10月4日 (星期二) 1030~ 1640
場所 : 於 YHP 八王子 會議室

時間 內容 發表人
10: 30 ~ 10: 35 開會之辭(日文) 海老原
10:35 ~ 11:00 介紹 YHP 海老原
11 :00 ~ 11:30 介紹 YHP 開發之製品 日野
11 :30 ~ 12 :00 午餐
13 : 00 ~ 15 : 00 TQC 和 校正之講義 吉元
15 : 00~ 15 :10 休息

15 :10 ~ 16 :20 參觀工場 (上述共五人)

我 可能在1983年隔年春節前去一趟美國加州。當時參訪諸如Signetics半導體公司(這是飛利浦公司關係企業,當年大搞 Philips Crosby那一套品管)。我又花一整天在 IBM (San Jose)的廠區,與其品館經理James Harrington談品管。他隔年選美國ASQC的 President,竟然選成。由於ASQC有”會長選出先見習一年”之制度,所以他的任期是(1985-86)。
幾年前,我寫一篇 「職場雜憶:我所不知道的哈靈頓(H. James Harrington)先生」 :

『我 至少半年沒逛Quality Digest雜誌的網站。2004/11/22 訪它,在專欄區看到H. James Harrington先生的消息。根據簡介,他現在是哈靈頓學院公司(Harrington Institute Inc.)的執行長兼哈靈頓集團(Harrington Group)的董事長。他在品管的專業經驗達45年以上,並出版過22本書。可以參觀他公司的網站 www.harrington-institute.com.


對 於我來說,他是「美國現象」,代表天資普通的人,仍然可以經營出他的人際和國際關係網絡,並將它們化成利益。幾年前,台灣的品質學會要開慶祝年會,必須付 他機票等費用(該學會國際關係組平常不燒香,只好抱此佛腳;或許在經營:『我們也有「前美國品質協會會長」來共襄盛舉』之名)。其實也沒做什麼事。

中 華民國品質學會關於他的間接笑話還有一樁(他自己都不知情):某秘書長要求翻譯哈靈頓(H. James Harrington)的書 Business Process Improvement: The Breakthrough Strategy for Total Quality, Productivity, and Competitiveness. Manufacturer, McGraw-Hill(他早期的書多是這家出版社所出版的。不過,這家出版社近十年來,也成三流的。讀者可以從hc上周末讀一下就找出招牌書Juran Quality Handbook的兩處錯誤可知一斑)。據悉,翻譯完成,付出十幾萬稿費給譯者,然而,「我們打算拿它來看看可能出版否」的時候,卻不知道稿子藏到那兒去 —換句話說,帳目上有,實體丟掉…..)

他的22本書都與process/ improvement/ performance/ benchmarking等等有關,我們可以從現在他網站上的課程了解一些:(有些書兼為研習手冊,或多或少以下述課程為中心):

Business Process Improvement
Organizational Change Mgt.
Capacity Building
Project Management
Knowledge Management
Total Six Sigma
E-business Technology
Total Improvement Mgt.

印 象最深刻的是;我們當年談的「全面品質管理」(Total Quality Management ),已改成「全面六標準差」 (Total Six Sigma) –真是先進,虧他還當過一屆的美國品質協會之會長(ASQC在1986改為ASQ,把C(Control)拿掉)。』

新經濟學與台灣戴明圈: The New Economics and A Taiwanese Deming Circle


24. 為這些事作證,且寫下這些事的,就是這個門徒,我們知道:他的作證是真實的。

  1. 耶穌所行的還有許多別的事;假使要一一寫出來,我想所要寫的書,連這世界也容不下。



NIKE, Inc. Restructuring Statement

NIKE, Inc. Restructuring Statement
14 May, 2009

BEAVERTON, Ore. (May 14, 2009) -- Today NIKE, Inc. announced the completion of its workforce review. As previously stated, NIKE, Inc. began a global workforce review in February in an effort to enhance its consumer focus, speed decision making and to create a stronger organizational structure for the future.

NIKE, Inc. will reduce its overall global workforce of nearly 35,000 by approximately five percent. Nike will eliminate approximately 500 jobs from its World Headquarters near Beaverton.

“Our new structure sharpens our consumer focus globally to drive continued growth while positioning NIKE, Inc. competitively in today’s marketplace,” said Mark Parker President and CEO, NIKE, Inc. “We remain a growth company and we know these changes have created a stronger organization that will enable us to invest in our most significant opportunities. However, the decision to reduce our workforce has been a difficult and challenging one as it affects our colleagues, teammates and friends.”

Departing employees will receive a robust and enhanced severance to help support their transition from the company. Over the next several weeks, the company expects to complete the majority of employee transitions.

2009年7月9日 星期四







 専門は文化人類学、民族地理学。1953年にマナスル登山隊に参加して以来、ネパール、ヒマラヤの現地調査を続け、「鳥葬の国」などのノンフィク ションから「素朴と文明」といった独自の文明論まで、幅広く手がけた。その一方で、環境保護や、ネパールにふさわしい形の技術協力を進め、アジアのノーベ ル賞といわれるマグサイサイ賞なども受けている。


(2009年7月9日14時52分 読売新聞)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』




概要 [編集]




多くの断片的なデータを統合して、創造的なアイディアを生み出したり、問題の解決の糸口を探ってゆく。プロセスそのものは川喜田二郎の著作に明確に 記されており、一見シンプルで容易にみえる。しかし、プロセスの随所で細かい注意が必要であり、実際に使いこなすためには訓練が必要である。

KJ法の進め方 [編集]


  • カードの作成
  • グループ編成
  • 図解化(KJ法A型)
  • 叙述化(KJ法B型)


注意点 [編集]


「KJ法」は(株)川喜田研究所が商標登 録し(商標登録第4867036号)、正規の教育・コンサルティングを行なうための認定を行っている。また、コンピュータで使えるソフトウエアで、KJ法 を使えると称したものが配布・販売されているが、「KJ法を使える」ことを謳うだけであれば商標の使用にはあたらないものの、川喜田研究所から商標の使用 許諾を受けずに「KJ法」を商標として使用している場合には商標権侵害になる。

参考文献 [編集]

関連項目 [編集]

外部リンク [編集]

2009年7月7日 星期二

三頭六臂集 660-669


現在還有人寫這本書的評論 真有意思
Book review: The Capitalist Philosophers
Examiner.com - USA
... Mary Parker Follett, Chester Barnard, Fritz Roethlisberger and Elton Mayo, Robert McNamara, Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor, W. Edwards Deming, .

戴爾誠意不夠 消基會將打團體訴訟
戴爾兩周內在台上演兩次錯標烏龍,消基會整理國際大廠錯標事後處理狀況,消基會表示,包含IBM、惠普和日本丸紅等錯標後都照單全收,相較戴爾的不認帳,消基會痛批,戴爾不負責任,違反誠信原則,除了協助消費者打官司,並提報世界消費者聯會,控訴戴爾侵犯消費者權益。 ...

戴爾電腦上網標價接連出錯,台北縣主任消保官楊舜惠表示,戴爾是國際大廠,又是系統業者,卻接連標價錯誤,她懷疑戴爾根本不是疏失,而是蓄意行為,讓兩度標錯價形成「密集新聞『廣告』」,坐享免費的「新聞廣告效益」。 消保會已請經濟部研擬網站購物契約,商業司長葉 ...

據臺灣媒體報導, 繼5日透過電話會議向媒體表達歉意後,戴爾臺灣昨日再度召開記者會,戴爾臺灣地區總經理廖仁祥宣布將對在7月4日凌晨至上午,系統異常期間下單購買Latitude E4300筆記本電腦消費者,每人發放一張價值新台幣兩萬元(約合608美元) ...
消基會表示,許多國際大廠都曾發生標錯價事件,為保全商譽,他們皆依約出貨,希望戴爾電腦能依合約執行。 消基會指出,西元2004年,IBM在中國網站以1元價格出售當時市價1600人民幣光碟機引發搶購,事後IBM表示,是人為錯誤,也同時表態願按相關手續履行所有訂單。 ...
消基會:戴爾事件 消費者勝訴機率大
ZDNet Taiwan - Taiwan
ZDNet記者曠文溱/台北報導 2009/07/07 19:30:02 民間團體消基會認為,有憑有據,消費者有機會藉由訴訟而獲勝,讓戴爾必須依照先前標示的價格出貨。 消基會今(7)日表示,戴爾最終決定不認訂單,以發給折價券的方式補償在系統錯誤期間,下單購買液晶螢幕和筆記型電腦消費 ...

Robert S. McNamara, the powerful defense secretary who helped lead the nation into the maelstrom of Vietnam and spent the rest of his life wrestling with the war’s moral consequences, died Monday at his home in Washington. He was 93.

“Mr. President, it’s absurd, I’m not qualified,” he remembered protesting when asked to serve. He said that Kennedy had replied, “Look, Bob, I don’t think there’s any school for presidents, either.”

Kennedy called him the smartest man he had ever met. Mr. McNamara looked steely-eyed and supremely rational behind his wire-rimmed glasses, his brown hair slicked back precisely and crisply parted on top. Mr. McNamara had risen by his mastery of systems analysis, the business of making sense of large organizations — taking on a big problem, studying every facet, finding simplicity in the complexity.


"行政院衛生署3月底公告,把蘋果「安殺番」農藥殘留標準由「不得檢出」改為0.5ppm。農委會農業藥物毒物試驗所資深官員表示,台灣與美國在3月間數度諮商後,改訂新標準。 學者質疑,今年進口美國蘋果被驗出不得檢出的安殺番後,政府修正蘋果安殺番殘留標準。 ..."官員又說我們比日本的規格還嚴 那些禁止使用的國家又怎說外47國)
又有醫生說 這毒不得了

長庚醫院毒物科主任林杰樑說,安殺番屬劇毒,蘋果安殺番殘留量最多只應放寬至0.005ppm,衛生署應對檢驗標準改為0.5ppm做出說明。 林杰樑建議,蘋果農藥殘留量標準訂定,要綜合參考毒物學及算出一個國家每人每天吃下幾顆後才研訂。依各國飲食文化不同,標準可能有落差。 ...
〔中央社〕消基會今天批評行政院衛生署向美國低頭,致使美國安殺番毒蘋果侵台。衛生署表示,沒有受到美國壓力,且現行的0.5ppm蘋果安殺番標準在安全範圍內。 消費者文教基金會今天批評衛生署面對美國壓力,從馬拉松小麥、瘦肉精、美國牛肉事件,到今年3月底放寬蘋果安殺番 ...

中國 企业质量信用要分三六九等 ???


基于实践的微观经济学 1996




Consider what Peter Drucker observed in an article that appeared in the Harvard Business Review in 1963: "There is surely nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency what should not be done at all."

2周前送wws回國誤搭捷運 就知道這系統開玩笑

20年前設計 不符實際需求



人口大幅增加 中運量不夠



銜接木柵線 分屬不同系統





高架段緊鄰住宅 噪音擾鄰

內 湖線高架段將近有10公里是行經近年高度開發人口密集的住宅區,有的車站站體更緊鄰一旁大樓,加上內湖和木柵線雖都是中運量膠輪系統,但木柵線行駛的是較 會晃動不平的混凝土路面,內湖線為鋼製路面,列車雖然提高乘坐舒適性,卻會發出更大聲響及共鳴,列車密集運行,恐將引發更大噪音批評。

軟(Microsoft Co.)似乎對一則廣告有了清醒的認識﹐一些觀察人士說這則廣告是有史以來最糟糕的科技廣告。


簡 言之﹐廣告內容是一個女人吃早餐時借用丈夫的筆記本電腦﹐結果在瀏覽器歷史記錄中發現一個極其惡心的網站(畫面上沒有顯示)﹐導致她大吐特吐﹐弄得滿廚房 和她丈夫滿身都是。這則廣告的標題是O.M.G.I.G.P.﹐表示“天哪我要吐了”(Oh my god I'm going to puke)。


對 於一般的色情內容﹐許多人都會覺得不舒服﹐但讓我們猜想一下﹐看到色情內容就惡心得吐出來﹐這樣的人還是極少數。微軟的廣告似乎是在暗示那位丈夫所迷戀的 東西比色情內容更讓人不安。微軟應當記住:最好還是避免這樣的“創意”﹐它暗示著這個軟件是為那些乾著讓人無法啟齒的事情的家伙準備的﹐讓你的另一半連頓 早餐都吃不安生。

Nick Wingfield