要發表者 (包括我) 請將講題告知
2009/12/13 hanching chung <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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As per our yesterday's meeting, some of you know I am compiling a book on the systems thinking, including authors of Herbert A. simon, C. West Churchman and Russell L. Ackoff, G. Bateson and some of the Deming School. Last night I am thinking about including Sir Geoffrey Vickers.
This morning I download this note for your reference.
^ Peter Checkland (2004), "Webs of significance: the work of Geoffrey Vickers" in: Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol 22, Is 4 , Pp 291-298.
Hanching Chung (or HC/ hc)
台灣戴明圈: A Taiwanese Deming Circle
A system must be managed.
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Hanching Chung (or HC/ hc)
台灣戴明圈: A Taiwanese Deming Circle
Professor Emeritus Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania,
參加者: 戴久永教授 / Kevin Lin / hanching chung/王治瀚/Tony Chen/官生平夫婦/ John Liu/Peter Hsiung/盧鑫理
Theme: 紀念 Russell Ackoff (1919-2009)
Time: 十二月十二日(週六) 1000-1600
Place : 台北市新生南路三段88號2樓
說明: 本會多人為Russell Ackoff 教授的忠實讀者 出版過他的"八十趣談"
今年他過世 我們要懷念他 明年為他出版專書
參加者請備短文說明 "Russell Ackoff 思想與我" 或翻譯他的文章
1000-1100 紀念Russell Ackoff(1919-2009) 發表諸人
1110-1200 2010年紀念Deming 研討會 (真理大學) 官生平夫婦 兼談陳寬仁回憶錄
Edgar A. Singer, Jr.
Edgar Arthur Singer, Jr. (November 13, 1873 – April 4, 1954) was an American philosopher, who taught as a professor at the University of Pennsylvania from 1909 until 1943.
Singer had been a student of William James and Henry Bradford Smith. He believed that there is no consciousness to be studied objectively by a science of mind. As an object for scientific psychology, he suggested behaviour, which was observable. But he was not a materialist. Neither was Singer an empiricist, his epistemology for a science of psychology was self described as Empirical-Idealism.
His pupils included Henry Bradford Smith, Edwin Ray Guthrie Jr., and C. West Churchman
Thomas A. Cowan, A Note on Churchman's "Statistics, Pragmatics, Induction.".
C. West Churchman, Reply to Comments on "Statistics, Pragmatics, Induction.".
Hasan Ozbekhan, Philadelphia, professor emeritus of management at the Wharton School; Feb. 12. He came to Penn in 1971 as professor of statistics and operations research. In 1979 he was appointed chair of the newly created Department of Social Systems Sciences. He also served as graduate group chair through 1983. He retired in 1993. While at Penn he was director of research for the Club of Rome, the international group of planners, diplomats, scientists, and academics; a paper he wrote, “The Predicament of Mankind” became an influential core document of the group. Now considered a “forward-looking document” by his former colleagues, it addressed issues of energy, overpopulation, resource depletion, and environmental degradation, and argued that global problems were interconnected and should be dealt with collaboratively. Dr. Ozbekhan also served, during the 1970s, as a consultant to the French government; in 1977 he presented a lecture on the future of Paris before the Royal Society in London.
Frederick Edmund Emery, nick Fred, (27 August 1925 – 10 April 1997) was an Australian psychologist. He was one of the pioneers in the field of Organizational development (OD), particularly in the development of theory around participative work design structures such as self-managing teams. He was widely regarded as one of the finest social scientists of his generation. His contribution to the theory and practice of organizational life will remain important well into the 21st century, particularly amongst those who feel uncomfortable with hierarchical bureaucracy and want to replace it with something more human and democratic.
The three books that perhaps best convey his thinking are Toward a Social Ecology from 1972 with Eric Trist, On purposeful systems from 1972 with Russell Ackoff, and Futures We're In from 1977. He also edited for Penguin two volumes of readings called Systems Thinking (the initial volume was reprinted six times), which will long remain a staple resource on the origins and development of open systems thinking throughout the life sciences.
Eric Trist (September 1909 – 4 June 1993) was a British scientist and leading figure in the field of Organizational development (OD). He was one of the founders of the Tavistock Institute for Social Research in London.
抄過他在 Bell Lab 當過顧問的故事 還沒翻譯
讀過兩cases-- 杜邦的 SHE 和 企管學院之設計---原想比較 Fordham 的 MBA 可能做不到---所有的老師都用一TITLE--
沒有TENURE 聘期為 1,2,4,8,16 退休 這非重點 但博ㄧ笑
這只是其中 教育（学PEDAGOGY ）之ㄧ項 有趣的是 Ackoff 曾為Peter Scholtes 的 戴明領導手冊 作序
Knowles held that andragogy (from the Greek words meaning "man-leading") should be distinguished from the more commonly used pedagogy (Greek: "child-leading").... (© Wikipedia)
━━ n. 成人教育学［法］.
Russell Ackoff ( 88歲)在倫敦賣新書：
Henry Ford's business model still influences our thinking undulyBBC News - UK
He was a friend and associate of the still-influential management expert W Edwards Deming, the man who took quality to Japan and then saw it bounce back to ...
He was a friend and associate of the still-influential management expert W Edwards Deming, the man who took quality to Japan and then saw it bounce back to ...
November 14, 2009
A Message from Dean of The Wharton School, Tom Robertson about Ackoff Memorial ServiceDear Colleagues,
As many of you already know, Penn lost a great citizen when Russell L. Ackoff passed away on October 29, 2009 at the age of 90. Russ was the Anheuser Busch Professor Emeritus of Management Science, a transformative scholar dubbed the “father of operations research,” and an admired colleague, teacher, mentor, and friend. He had been on the Wharton faculty from 1964 until he retired in 1986, although he continued to be involved with programs in the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, and Wharton.
The Penn community will honor Russ’s legacy on February 12, 2010, from 2 to 3 p.m. in Ambani Auditorium, Jon M. Huntsman Hall. This date was selected by his family as it would have been his 91st birthday. There will be a reception immediately following in Huntsman Hall’s Patty and Jay H. Baker Forum. All are invited to attend...
Russell L. Ackoff (born 12 February 1919 -2009 ) is leading American management expert in areas including systems theory. In 1957, his book, Introduction to Operations Research, co-authored with C. West Churchman and Leonard Arnoff, appeared as a pioneering text that helped define the field. Dr. Ackoff also has been referred to as the dean of the systems thinking community.
Dr. Ackoff received his Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Pennsylvania in 1941. He then continued to study at the University of Pennsylvania where he subsequently received his Doctorate in Philosophy of Science in 1947. He next went on to receive his Doctorate of Science from the University of Lancaster in 1967. Throughout the years, Ackoff has held positons at various universities and institutions, as well as publishing numerous books and articles. His latest jobs are Chairman of Interact, the Institute for Interactive Management, and Professor Emeritus of the Wharton School.
Ackoff's work in research, consulting and education has involved more than 250 corporations and 50 governmental agencies in the U.S. and abroad. He has authored or co-authored 20 books and published over 150 articles in a variety of journals.
- Re-Creating the Corporation by Russell Lincoln Ackoff, 1999.
- The Democratic Corporation A Radical Prescription for Recreating Corporate America and Rediscovering Success by Russell L. Ackoff, 1994.
- Creating the Corporate Future by Russell L. Ackoff, 1981. Presents a participative systems approach to interactive planning. Describes how to formulate the system of problems and opportunities that face a corporation.
- Ackoff's Best Timeless Observations on the Life of Business by Russell Lincoln Ackoff, 1999.
- The Art of Problem Solving Accompanied by Ackoff's Fables by Russell L. Ackoff, 1987. Shows how to develop an understanding of the art of creative thinking and design creative solutions. Based on real problems faced by real managers.
- Systems Thinking - Managing Chaos and Complexity : a Platform for Designing Business Architecture by Jamshid Gharajedaghi, 1999. An exceptional work based on experiences in five real companies using systems practice. Video
- A Day with Dr. Russel L. Ackoff - Video by Dr. Russel L. Ackoff, Nov 2000
Highly Recommended - Video of presentation to the Chicago-Kent College of Law.
"Among the topics Dr. Ackoff discussed during the workshop were: The history and application of systems thinking...Articles
- An Idealized Design of the U.S. Healthcare System by Russell L. Ackoff et. al., Jan 1994
'A consortium consisting of representative stakeholders in the National Healthcare (so-called) System has produced a "true" redesign of that system.'
- Transformation and Redesign at the White House Communications Agency (WHCA) by March Laree Jacques, May 1999
Ackoff consulted with WHCA on the transformation, originally published by the American Society for Quality in the Quality Management Journal, Volume 6, Issue 3, 1999.
- A Brief Guide to Interactive Planning and Idealized Design by Russell L. Ackoff, May 2001
"Interactive planning is directed at creating the future. It is based on the belief that an organization's future depends at least as much on what it does between now and then, as on what is done to it."
- Design and Planning in Organizations by Russell Ackoff, Mar 1996
A great introduction to the Spring 1996 Center for Quality of Management Journal on this topic.
- Structural Process Improvement at the Naval Inventory Control Point by Gary Burchill, Mar 1996
A detailed examination of a Navy effort to apply Ackoff's Idealized Design with Total Quality Management and Systems Dynamics. Recommended.
- Management Gurus and Educators by Russell Ackoff, Sep 2001
- Interview with Russell L. Ackoff by Carole Novak, Sep 2000
"So many people spend their lives doing things they don't want to do. . . . The best kind of life is one in which the difference between work and play is zero."
- Russell L. Ackoff - Systemic Approach to Innovation by Robert J. Allio, Sep 2003
Interview of Russell Ackoff. Managers "tend to look for simple, if not simple-minded, solutions to problems. For this reason managers are susceptible to management gurus pitching panaceas."
- The Future of Operational Research is Past by Russell L. Ackoff, Jan 1979
"I hold academic OR and the relevant professional societies primarily responsible for this decline-and since I had a hand in initiating both, I share this responsibility. By the mid 1960's most OR courses in American universities were given by academics..."
- Resurrecting the Future of Operational Research by Russell L. Ackoff, Jan 1979
"In a previous paper I tried to show that OR is in a mess. There is no one solution to a mess. What is needed are designs and inventions that will enable Operational Researchers to formulate their ideals explicitly, pursue them effectively..."
- A Systemic View of Transformational Leadership by Russell L. Ackoff, Jul 1998
"Therefore, a transformational leader is one who can produce, or encourage and facilitate the production of, a mobilizing vision of a transformed system. Equally important, the leader must be able to inspire and organize or have organized an effective..."
- Transforming The Systems Movement by Russell L. Ackoff, May 2004
"Systems thinking produces radical and potentially revolutionary visions of public institutions. Nothing short of such visions can transform the state of world affairs. I believe we have an obligation to the global society of which we are a part to make..."
|About Dr. Russell Ackoff|
|The characteristic way of management that we have taught in the Western world is [to] take a complex system, divide it into parts and then try to manage each part as well as ...|
|The Big Picture, Vol. 2 (Ackoff)||$110.00|
|Dr. Ackoff explains why everyone in an organization must understand the ...|
|Doing The Right Thing Right, Vol. 4 (Ackoff)|
|In the final volume Dr. Ackoff demonstrates the right way to do the right thing for long-term ...|
|The New Leadership, Vol. 3 (Ackoff)||$110.00|
|Dr. Ackoff draws the vital distinction between commanding and leading. Systems ...|
|Outstanding Publications The Leader's Handbook: Making Things Happen, Getting Things Done, Peter R. Scholtes, New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 1998. $29.95 Every manager, every ...|
|Outstanding Publications The Leader's Handbook: Making Things Happen, Getting Things Done, Peter R. Scholtes, New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 1998. $29.95 Every manager, every ...|
|Welcome to ManagementWisdom.com As collaborators with the late W. Edwards Deming and Dr. Russell L. Ackoff, we are pleased to keep the video rendering of their revolutionary ... the quality of life for more and more people. The Deming Library and Dr. Ackoff’s Better Management for a Changing World series are available on ...|
|主要作者||阿庫夫 (Ackoff, Russell Lincoln, 1919- )|
|Ackoff, Russell Lincoln 1919-|
|書名/作者||打破体制 : 用创造性巧胜官僚机构 / 鲁塞尔.L.阿克夫(Russell L. Ackoff),谢尔顿.罗文(Sheldon Rovin)著; 肖聿译|
|出版項||北京 : 中國社會科學, 2007|
|打破體制 : 用創造性巧勝官僚機構|
|稽核項||,144面 : 圖 ; 22公分|
|譯自||Beating the system using creativity to outsmart bureaucracies|
|其他作者||羅文 (Rovin, Sheldon)|
|稽核項||200面 ; 21公分|
|譯自||Management in small doses|
|ISBN/價格||957-508-021-1 平裝 新臺幣140元|
How to avoid the fatal F-Laws
By Peter Day
Presenter, BBC Radio 4 and BBC World Service
It is always exciting to meet a real subversive, especially when he (or she) is old and wise.
Henry Ford's business model still influences our thinking unduly
Russell Ackoff was in London the other day to launch a new book and he fits all the categories.
He is 88 and simply bubbles with ideas about what's wrong with the way business works.
His new book is all about the F-Laws, uncomfortable truths about the (mistaken) way most organisations are run.
The flaws come from decades of repeated management mistakes and conventional business teaching.
When I met him just before a packed session at the London School of Economics, Russell Ackoff told me how he came by his unorthodox approach to management and how much most organisations still have to learn.
"Companies and organisations get things wrong most of the time," he said.
"The average life of a US corporation is only 11-and-a-half years, the rate of bankruptcy is increasing very year. There's a great deal of evidence that we don't know how to manage organisations very effectively.
"The F-Laws are simply based on observations over the year about regularities which are destructive to organisations."
Parts and wholes
As that word "regularities" might suggest, Russell Ackoff started academic life as a specialist in operational research.
The important switch in his own life occurred with the rise of systems thinking in the 1970s.
Meet the business subversive
As he puts it, corporate problems were arising that could not be solved by simply taking care of the parts, the obsession of operational research.
"We found that we could improve part of a corporation and destroy the whole by improving the part."
From this emerged Russell Ackoff's obsession with seeing the system as a whole - a personal change which coincided with the rise of system dynamics as a brand new way of looking at organisations, in the round.
He was a friend and associate of the still-influential management expert W Edwards Deming, the man who took quality to Japan and then saw it bounce back to his native US.
Russell Ackoff thinks that, imprisoned in centuries of Western education which values only analytic thought, most people cannot do the "synthetic" thinking that sees an organisation as an intermoving whole.
Analytic thinking uses research and experimentation. Design is the way that synthetic thinking operates, putting things together rather than taking them apart.
This enthusiasm may spring from his upbringing. Russell Ackoff trained as an architect, not at a business school.
"Architects have to start with the concept of the buildings as a whole - they don't start with the details," he says.
Russell Ackoff's insights come from his background in architecture
"Complexity is not a problem to the architect, but it is to the analyst. The architect puts things together into wholes, as opposed to what business people do, putting parts together to make wholes."
Business people still inspired by Henry Ford are told to "Keep It Simple, Stupid", to create chains of processes that cannot go wrong.
But they can and they do go wrong - and so do the businesses they run in that Fordist way.
Henry Ford arranged his production lines around untrained workers who were pouring off the boats seeking jobs in Detroit, dividing tasks up into tiny pieces which an unskilled and illiterate worker could perform.
But things were changing fast, says Russell Ackoff.
"At the beginning of the 1900s in the US, the average educational level of the worker was barely above literacy.
"By World War II, it had risen to eight years of schooling.
"During WWII, we started to employ women who were not working primarily for money.
"When the men returned, fed up with military discipline, we had a conversion from the mechanistic to the biological concept of the corporation - corpus means body, after all.
"The CEO was called the head of the corporation - machines didn't have heads. Ford had been called the 'controller' of Ford Motor Company," Russell Ackoff points out.
"Since then, there's been a third change, seeing the corporation as a social organisation. Now we must treat the parts as having purposes of their own, which must be served if the corporation is to be served.
Car production lines now are not the same as in Henry Ford's day
"Charles Handy is one of the principal prophets of this, looking at companies as communities."
Management is now about managing interactivity. An educated workforce is full of people who know more about their jobs than their supervisors. On the Ford production line, the supervisor was the man who knew the job best.
Ford's organisation was almost autonomous, making everything it needed. Now many companies, such as Dell Computers, merely assemble things made by others.
The interaction of independent parts has become the critical thing in organisations. And few, says Professor Ackoff, have much idea how to do it.
Russell Ackoff's book, Management F-Laws: How Organisations Really Work (with Herbert Addison and Sally Bibb), is published by Triarchy Press. In the next Work in Progress, more from the Professor: the truth about business schools.
Work in Progress is the title of this exploration of the big trends reshaping the world of work as we steam further into the 21st Century; and it is a work in progress, influenced and defined by my encounters as I report on trends in business and organisations all over the world.
羅素 林肯 艾可夫 （2月12日 1919年 - 10月29日 2009年 ），美國組織理論家 ， 顧問 ，和 賓夕法尼亞大學沃頓商學院的 Anheuser - Busch管理學名譽教授 。 Ackoff 艾可夫是作業研究 ， 系統思考和管理科學等領域的一位先驅者 。
羅素 艾可夫1919年出生於費城。他先後在1941年獲得賓夕法尼亞大學建築學士學位。他在母校當一年的哲學助教 。從1942年至1946年，他加入了美國陸軍。 He returned to study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received his doctorate in philosophy of science in 1947 as C.退伍之後他回到在賓夕法尼亞大學當研究生，於1947年獲得了科學哲學的博士學位 ，他是 West Churchman丘奇曼指導的第一位博士畢業生，。他1967年還獲得英國蘭卡斯特大學University of Lancaster 的博士學位。
從1947年至1951年艾可夫是韋恩州立大學Wayne State University 的哲學和數學助理教授 。從195151年至1964年他是 Case Institute of Technology 的作業研究副教授，教授。1961年和1962他是英國伯明翰大學 University of Birmingham的作業研究訪問教授 。從1964年到1986年，他是賓夕法尼亞大學 沃頓商學院的 系統科學和 管理科學 教授 。
In the 1970s and 1980s the at the Wharton School, according to Nicholson and Myers (1998), was "noted for combining theory and practice, escaping disciplinary bounds, and driving students toward independent thought and action. The learning environment was fostered by distinguished standing and visiting faculty such as
根據尼科爾森和邁爾斯（1998年）他70年代和80年代在沃頓商學院領導的"社會系統科學程"Social Systems Sciences Program很有名，能夠“注意到理論與實踐相結合，跳脫學科的界限，對推動學生去獨立思考和行動。該學習環境因為一些傑出學者Eric Trist , C. West Churchman , Hasan Ozbekhan , Thomas A. Cowan, and Fred Emery "]等的加持而相得益彰。
From 1986 to 2009, Ackoff was professor emeritus of the Wharton School , and chairman of .從1986年至2009年，艾可夫是 沃頓商學院 的名譽教授兼任互動管理學院Interact, the Institute for Interactive Management主席。 從1989年至1995年他任華盛頓大學(聖路易)客座市場營銷教授 。
1956年至1957年，艾可夫是美國作業研究學會 Operations Research Society of America (ORSA) 主席/ 1987年他曾擔任了國際社會的系統科學 International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) 主席。
1967年英國蘭開斯特大學授予Ackoff 名譽科學博士。 1971年他得到Operational Research Society的銀牌獎。 Other honors came from the Washington University in St. Louis in 1993, the in 1997, , Lima in 1999 and , UK in 1999.其他榮譽來自華盛頓大學(聖路易)在1993年，紐黑文大學University of New Haven在1997年，1999年兩所大學: the Pontificia Universidad Catholica Del Peru(秘魯，利馬)，和英國的the University of Lincolnshire & Humberside。 那年從英國系統學會為他送來了系統思考與實踐領域的傑出成就獎。
Ackoff 1949年7月17日與 Alexandra Makar結婚。他們有三兒女: Alan W., Karen B., and Karla S. [ 1 ]1987年 2月 Alexandra 歿後, Ackoff 於1987年12月20日與 Helen Wald再婚 。
Russell Ackoff started his career in Operations Research end 1940s.阿可夫在他的職業生涯開始運籌 20世紀40年代末。 His 1957 book Introduction to Operations Research , co-authored with C. 1957年他的書介紹到行動研究 ，共同撰寫的長 West Churchman and Leonard Arnoff was one of the first publications, that helped define the field. 丘奇曼和Leonard Arnoff是首批出版物，即幫助定義字段。 The influence of this work, according to Kirby and Rosenhead (2005), "on the early development of the discipline in the USA and in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s is hard to over-estimate". [ 2 ]影響這項工作的，按照柯比和羅森黑德（2005年），“關於早期發展本學科在美國和英國在50年代和60年代，是很難估計過高。”
In the 1970s he become one of the most important critics of the so called "technique-dominated Operations Research", and starting proposing more participative approaches. 20世紀70年代，他成為一個最重要的批評的所謂“技術為主的行動研究”，並開始提出更多的參與方式。 His critics, according to Kirby and Rosenhead (2005), had "resonance within the USA, but were picked up both in Britain, where they helped to stimulate the growth of Problem Structuring Methods, and in the systems community world-wide" [ 2 ] , such as Soft systems methodology from Peter Checkland .他的批評，根據柯比和羅森黑德（2005年），有“共振在美國，但回升都在英國，在那裡他們幫助，以刺激增長的問題的構建方法，在系統社會世界各地的”[2 ]，如軟系統方法從切克蘭德 。
In 1972 Ackoff wrote a book with Frederick Edmund Emery about purposeful systems, [ 4 ] which focused on the question how systems thinking relates to human behaviour .阿可夫在1972年寫了一本與馮埃德蒙金剛砂有目的的系統，其重點議題是如何系統思想涉及到人的行為 。 "Individual systems are purposive", they said, "knowledge and understanding of their aims can only be gained by taking into account the mechanisms of social, cultural, and psychological systems". [ 2 ] “個人系統是有目的”，他們說，“知識和了解他們的目的，只能由獲得考慮到機制，社會，文化和心理系統”。
Any human-created systems can be characterizes as "purposeful system" when it's "members are also purposeful individuals who intentionally and collectively formulate objectives and are parts of larger purposeful systems". [ 5 ] Other characteristics are:任何人創建的系統可以定性為“有目的的制度”時的“成員也有目的的個人和集體誰故意制定的目標和同屬大目的的系統”。的其他特徵是：
- "A purposeful system or individual is ideal-seeking if... it chooses another objective that more closely approximates its ideal". [ 6 ] “有目的的系統或個人的理想追求，如果它選擇了另一條...目標，更接近理想”。
- "An ideal-seeking system or individual is necessarily one that is purposeful, but not all purposeful entities seek ideals", [ 6 ] and “一個理想的追求系統或個人是一個一定是有目的的，但不是所有目的的實體尋求理想”，和
- "The capability of seeking ideals may well be a characteristic that distinguishes man from anything he can make, including computers". [ 7 ] “的能力，尋求理想的可能是一個人的特點是從什麼區別，他可以，包括計算機”。
In 2006, Ackoff worked with Herbert J. Addison and Sally Bibb. 2006年，阿可夫同赫伯特J. Addison和薩利比伯。 They developed the term f-Law to describe "each in a collection of subversive epigrams, co-authored with Herbert J. Addison. The f-Laws expose the common flaws in both the practice of leadership and in the established beliefs that surround it. According to Ackoff f-Laws are truths about organizations that we might wish to deny or ignore - simple and more reliable guides to managers' everyday behavior than the complex truths proposed by scientists, economists, sociologists, politicians and philosophers". [ 9 ]他們制定了長期的F -法來 形容，“每一個集合顛覆警句，合著與赫伯特J.艾迪。的F -法律的共同缺陷暴露無論是實踐的領導和建立信仰圍繞著它。據阿可夫的F -法律是對組織的真理，我們不妨否認或忽視-簡單，更可靠的指南，以管理者的日常行為較複雜的真理提出的科學家，經濟學家，社會學家，政治家和哲學家。“
In collaboration with Dr. J. Gerald Suarez, Ackoff's ideas were introduced and implemented at the White House Communications Agency and The White House Military Office during the Clinton and Bush administrations, a historic effort to bring the White House into the age of systems thinking . [ 10 ]在合作與哲基爾醫生杰拉爾德蘇亞雷斯，阿可夫的想法，建立和實施在白宮通訊局和白宮軍事辦公室主任期間， 克林頓和布什行政當局，一個歷史性的努力，使白宮成為時代的系統思維 。 
Russell Ackoff was friends with Peter Drucker from the earliest days of their careers.阿可夫好友， 彼得德魯克從最早的天自己的職業生涯。 Mr. Drucker acknowledged the early, critical contribution Russ made to his work - and the world of management in general - in the following letter, which was delivered to Russ by former General Motors VP Vince Barabba on the occasion of the 3rd International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management (ICSTM) held at the University of Pennsylvania, May 19-24, 2004:德魯克先生承認的早期，拉斯作出重要貢獻他的工作-和世界普遍的管理-在下面這封信被送到拉斯前通用汽車公司副總裁文斯巴拉巴了會見第三屆國際會議系統在管理的思考（ICSTM）舉行的賓夕法尼亞大學，五月19日至24日，2004：
“I was then, as you may recall, one of the early ones who applied Operations Research and the new methods of Quantitative Analysis to specific BUSINESS PROBLEMS -- rather than, as they had been originally developed for, to military or scientific problems. “我當時，你可能還記得，一個早期的誰運籌學與應用的新方法定量分析的具體業務問題-而不是，因為他們原先制定，軍事和科學問題。 I had led teams applying the new methodology in two of the world's largest companies -- GE and AT&T.我領導的小組採用新的方法在世界上兩個最大的公司-通用電氣公司和AT＆T We had successfully solved several major production and technical problems for these companies -- and my clients were highly satisfied.我們已成功地解決了幾個主要的生產和技術問題為這些公司-和我的客戶都非常滿意。 But I was not--we had solved TECHNICAL problems but our work had no impact on the organizations and on their mindsets.但我並沒有-我們解決了技術問題，但我們的工作沒有任何影響的組織和他們的心態。 On the contrary: we had all but convinced the managements of these two big companies that QUANTITATIVE MANIPULATION was a substitute for THINKING.相反：我們所有的管理人員，但相信這兩個大企業，定量操控代替思考。 And then your work and your example showed us--or at least, it showed me--that the QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS comes AFTER the THINKING -- it validates the thinking; it shows up intellectual sloppiness and uncritical reliance on precedent, on untested assumptions and on the seemingly “obvious.” But it does not substitute for hard, rigorous, intellectually challenging THINKING.然後你的工作和你的例子表明，我們-或者至少，這表明我-說來定量分析後，思考-它證明了思想，它顯示了知識產權草率和不加批判的依賴先例，對未經檢驗的假設和這種似乎“很明顯。”但這並不能取代硬，嚴謹，智力挑戰的想法。 It demands it, though -- but does not replace it.它要求的，雖然-但不會取代它。 This is, of course, what YOU mean BY system.這是當然，你所指的制度。 And your work in those far-away days thus saved me -- as it saved countless others -- from either descending into mindless “model building” -- the disease that all but destroyed so many of the Business Schools in the last decades -- or from sloppiness parading as 'insight.'”和您的工作在這些遙遠的日子，從而救了我-因為它挽救了無數人-從任一降入愚蠢“的模式建設” -所有的疾病，但摧毀了那麼多的商學院在過去幾十年裡-遊行或草率的'了解'。“
Ackoff has authored or co-authored 31 books and published over 150 articles in a variety of journals.阿可夫著有或合著31本書，並發表了150篇在多種期刊。 Books:書籍：
- 1946, Psychologistics , with C. 1946年，Psychologistics，與長 West Churchman . 丘奇曼 。
- 1947, Measurement of Consumer Interest , with CW Churchman and M. Wax (ed.). 1947年， 測量與消費者有關的 ，與連續丘奇曼和M.蠟（編）。
- 1950, Methods of Inquiry: an introduction to philosophy and scientific method , with CW Churchman. 1950年， 調查方法：1介紹哲學和科學方法 ，用化學武器丘奇曼。 Educational Publishers: St. Louis.教育出版商：聖路易斯。
- 1953, The Design of Social Research . 1953年， 在社會研究設計 。
- 1957, Introduction to Operations Research , with CW Churchman and EL Arnoff. 1957年， 介紹運籌學與連續丘奇曼和EL Arnoff。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1961, Progress in Operations Research , I. Wiley: New York. 1961年， 運籌學進展 ，一威利：紐約。
- 1962, Scientific Method: optimizing applied research decisions , Wiley: New York. 1962年， 科學方法：優化應用研究決定 ，威利：紐約。
- 1963, A Manager's Guide to Operations Research , with P. Rivett. 1963年，管理者的行動指南的研究 ，與體育裡韋特。 Wiley: New York.威利：紐約。
- 1968, Fundamentals of Operations Research , with M. Sasieni. 1968年， 運籌學的基本原理 ，與M. Sasieni。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1970, A Concept of Corporate Planning . 1970年，這一概念的企業策劃 。 Wiley-Interscience: New York.威利-跨學科：紐約。
- 1972, On Purposeful Systems: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Individual and Social Behavior as a System of Purposeful Events , with Frederick Edmund Emery , Aldine-Atherton: Chicago. 1972年， 有目的的系統：一個跨學科的分析個人和社會行為作為一個系統有目的的活動 ，與馮埃德蒙金剛砂 ，奧爾代恩，阿瑟頓：芝加哥。
- 1974, Redesigning the Future: A Systems Approach to Societal Problems . 1974年， 重新設計的未來：系統方法的社會問題 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1974, Systems and Management Annual , (ed.). 1974年， 系統和管理年 ，（編）。
- 1976, The SCATT Report , with TA Cowan, Peter Davis (Ed.). 1976年， 斯卡特報告 ，與TA科文， 彼得戴維斯 （主編）。
- 1976, Some Observations and Reflections on Mexican Development . 1976年， 一些看法和思考墨西哥發展 。
- 1978, The Art of Problem Solving: accompanied by Ackoff's Fables . 1978年， 藝術問題解決：伴隨著阿可夫的寓言 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。 Illustrations by Karen B. Ackoff.插圖由Karen乙可夫。
- 1981, Creating the Corporate Future: plan or be planned for . 1981年， 創建企業的未來：規劃或計劃 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1984, A Guide to Controlling Your Corporation's Future , with EV Finnel and J. Gharajedaghi. 1984年， 一本指南對於控制你的企業的未來 ，腸病毒士芬聶爾和J. Gharajedaghi。
- 1984, Revitalizing Western Economies , with P. Broholm and R. Snow. 1984年， 西方經濟振興與體育Broholm和河雪。
- 1986, Management in Small Doses . 1986年， 管理小劑量 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1991, Ackoff's Fables: Irreverent Reflections on Business and Bureaucracy . 1991年， 阿可夫的寓言：叛逆的思考商業和官僚主義 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1994, The Democratic Corporation: a radical prescription for recreating corporate America and rediscovering success . 1994年， 民主黨公司：一個激進的處方重現美國企業和重新發現的成功 。 Oxford Univ.牛津大學。 Press: New York.新聞：紐約。
- 1998, Exploring Personality: an intellectual odyssey . 1998年， 探索人格：知識分子的冒險旅行 。 CQM: Cambridge, MA.方圓：馬薩諸塞州的劍橋。
- 1999, Ackoff's Best: his classic writings on management . 1999年， 阿可夫最佳：他的經典作品的管理 。 John Wiley & Sons: New York.威利父子：紐約。
- 1999, Re-Creating the Corporation: a design of organizations for the 21st century . 1999年， 重新創建該公司：組織設計的21世紀 。 Oxford Univ.牛津大學。 Press: New York.新聞：紐約。
- 2000, "A Theory of a System for Educators and Managers", with W. 2000年，“一個理論的系統教育工作者和管理人員”，與布什 Edwards Deming [ 11 ] 愛德華茲戴 明
- 2003, Redesigning Society , with Sheldon Rovin. 2003年， 重新設計協會 ，與謝爾登Rovin。 Stanford Univ.斯坦福大學。 Press: Stanford, Calif.新聞：斯坦福大學，加州
- 2006, Idealized Design: How to Dissolve Tomorrow's Crisis Today , with Jason Magidson and Herbert J. Addison. 2006年， 理想化的設計：如何化解明天的危機今日 ，賈森馬吉德松和赫伯特J.艾迪。 Wharton School Publishing.沃頓商學院出版社。 Upper Saddle River, NJ. Upper Saddle River的新澤西州。
- 2006, A Little Book of f-Laws , with Herbert J. Addison and Sally Bibb. 2006年， 一本小書的F -法律 ，與赫伯特J. Addison和薩利比伯。
- 2007, Management f-Laws , with Herbert J. Addison and Sally Bibb. 2007年， 管理的F -法律 ，與赫伯特J. Addison和薩利比伯。
- 2008, Turning Learning Right Side Up: Putting Education Back on Track (pdf) with Daniel Greenberg . 2008年， 在談到學習權的一面向上：把教育回到正軌（PDF格式）與丹尼爾格林伯格 。
- 1967. 1967。 " Management Misinformation Systems ". “ 管理系統的誤導 ”。 In: Management Science , 14(4), 1967, 147-156.在： 管理科學 ，14（4），1967，147-156。
- 1968, "General Systems Theory and Systems Research Contrasting Conceptions of Systems Science." 1968年，“一般系統理論與系統研究對比系統科學概念。” in: Views on a General Systems Theory: Proceedings from the Second System Symposium, Mihajlo D. Mesarovic (Ed.).在：觀看關於一般系統論：從二訴訟制度研討會，米哈伊洛D.梅薩羅維奇（主編）。
- 1971, Towards A System of Systems Concepts . 1971年， 建立一個系統的系統概念 。
- 1973, "Science in the Systems Age: Beyond IE, OR, and MS" , Operations Research 21 (3), pp. 661-671. 1973年，“科學系統年齡：除了IE，或和MS”， 運籌學 21（3），頁。661-671。 Reprinted as "Science in the Systems Age" in Wharton Quarterly 1973. 7 (2); pp. 8-13.轉載的“科學系統時代” 季刊 1973年在沃頓商學院 。7（2）;頁。8-13。
- 1974, "The Social Responsibility of Operational Research" Operational Research Quarterly 25 (3), pp. 361-371. 1974年，“社會責任運籌學” 運籌學季刊 25（3），頁。361-371。
- 1975, "Advertising Research at Anheuser-Busch, Inc. (1963-68)", with James R. Emshoff, Sloan Management Review , 16 (2), pp. 1-15. 1975年，“廣告研究的安海斯公司（63年至1968年）”，與詹姆斯河Emshoff， 斯隆管理評論 ，16（2），頁。1-15。
- 1975, "A Reply to the Comments of Yvan Allaire", with James R. Emshoff, Sloan Management Review , 16 (3), pp. 95-98. 1975年，“答复的評論伊凡阿萊爾”，與詹姆斯河Emshoff， 斯隆管理評論 ，16（3），頁。95-98。
- 1977, "The Corporate Rain Dance" , The Wharton Magazine , Winter, pp. 36-41. 1977年，“該公司雨舞”， 在沃頓商學院雜誌 ，冬季，頁。36-41。
- 1996, On Learning and Systems That Facilitate it , in: Center for Quality of Management Journal Vol. 1996年， 在學習和系統 ， 讓它在： 中心質量管理雜誌卷。 5, No.2. 5，第二位。
- 1998, A Systemic View of Transformational Leadership 1998年， 系統性的觀點的變革型領導
- 2003, Terrorism: A Systemic View , with Johan P. Strumpfer, in: Systems Research and Behavioral Science 20, pp. 287-294. 2003年， 恐怖主義：系統性的觀點 ，與約翰體育Strumpfer在： 系統研究與行為科學 20，頁。287-294。
- 2004, Transforming The Systems Movement 2004年， 改變了系統的運動
- 2006, A major mistake that managers make 2006年， 一個重大失誤 ， 管理人員作出
- 2006, Thinking about the future 2006年， 對未來的思考
- 2006, Why few organizations adopt systems thinking in: Systems Research and Behavioral Science . 2006年， 為什麼一些組織採取系統思維是： 系統研究與行為科學 。 23, pp. 705-708. 23，頁。705-708。
- 2005, Doing the Wrong Thing Right by Russell Ackoff, October 2005. [ 12 ] 2005年， 做了錯的變成對的阿可夫，2005年10月。
- ^ a b c d Who's Who in America , 61st ed. ^ 1 b 葷 Ḏ誰是誰在美國 ，第61版。 (2007), p. （2007年），第 17. 17。
- ^ a b c d e f Maurice Kirby and Jonathan Rosenhead (2005). "IFORS Operational Research Hall of Fame: Russell L. Ackoff" . ^ 1 b 葷 Ḏ 位置 f柯比和喬納森莫里斯羅森黑德（2005年）。“IFORS運籌學名人堂：羅素阿可夫”。 In: Intl.在：Intl的。 Trans. 跨。 in Op. 的作品。 Res. Vol 12 pp. 水庫。卷12頁。 129–134. 129-134。
- ^ Margaret M. Nicholson and Kent Myers eds. ^瑪格麗特邁爾斯尼科爾森和肯特編。 (1998). Ackoff Russell L. and the advent of systems thinking Updated Program Announcement 4/14/99. （1998年）。 可夫羅素湖和系統思維的出現更新的程序公告4/14/99。 Accessed Oct 30, 2009.訪問二零零九年十月三十日。
- ^ Ackoff, Russell, and Emery, FE On Purposeful Systems . ^可夫，拉塞爾和金剛砂，鐵有目的的系統 。 Aldine-Atherton: Chicago 1972.奧爾代恩-阿瑟頓：1972年芝加哥。
- ^ ISD Knowledge Base; Systems Theory , 10/27/2001 ^ 新聞處知識庫，系統理論 ，2001年10月27日
- ^ a b RL Ackoff et al. ^ 1 b RL可夫等。 (2006) On purposeful systems: an interdisciplinary analysis of individual and ... （2006年） 有目的的系統：一個跨學科的分析個人和... p.241. p.241。
- ^ Without ideals man's life is purposeless , by Stuart Umpleby , 24 July 1996. ^ 沒有理想人的生命是目的的 ，由斯圖爾特昂普爾比 ，1996年7月24日。
- ^ "Science in the Systems Age: Beyond..." , p. ^“科學系統年齡：除了...”，第 663-665; "Science in the Systems Age", p. 663-665，“在系統科學時代”，第 9-10. 9-10。
- ^ F Laws: Management Truths We Wish To Ignore , Ackoff Center Weblog, 10 November 2006. ^ F法規：管理真理 ， 我們要忽略 ，阿可夫中心博客，2006年11月10日。
- ^ March Laree Jacques (1999). ^ 3月Laree希拉克（1999年）。 " Transformation and Redesign at the White House Communications Agency ". “ 轉型與重新設計在白宮通訊局 ”。 In: Quality Management Journal , Volume 6, Issue 3, 1999.在： 質量管理雜誌 ，第6卷第3期，1999年。
- ^ This is really a video; part of _The Deming Library_ series, produced by Clare Crawford Mason) Real publication date is 1993. ^這的確是一個視頻;部分兩隊的戴明Library_系列，生產的克萊爾克勞福德梅森）實時出版日期是1993年。
- ^ Program National Summit on School Design, October 6-8, 2005 , American Architecture Foundation. ^計劃國家首腦會議的學校設計10月6-8，2005年 ，美國建築基金會。
- ACASA Ackoff Collaboratory for Advancement of the Systems Approach, center for the vanguard of systems approaches, since July 2000. ACASA可夫合作實驗室的地位問題的系統方法，中心系統的先鋒隊的辦法，自2000年7月。
- Ackoff Center Weblog a forum for systems thinkers and systems thinking. 阿可夫中心博客論壇，系統和系統思維的思想家。
- Set of videos with Russell Ackoff, 2004. 集視頻與阿可夫，2004。
- Ackoff biographies 阿可夫傳記
- ackoff.villanova.edu ackoff.villanova.edu
中國官員最被歐美亞同行甚至國際貨幣基金組織詬病的一件事就是，遲遲不著手解決人民幣匯率低估問題。一些環太平洋國家認為，人民幣和美元雙雙走軟可能會給亞洲經濟體帶來沉重打擊。 但問題是，人民幣被指責低估已經多年了，如果中國官員足夠勤快，早在本輪經濟危機爆發前就將人民幣的升值余地全部填滿，那麼，隨著危機的爆發，美元在投資 者恐慌情緒推動下大幅上揚，人民幣將何以自處？隨美元一道走高？中國不是投資避風港，愣要打腫臉充胖子只能打掉牙齒往肚裡嚥。站在原地不動？那就意味著兌 美元貶值，豈不又要被指責趁美元之危打劫？印度尼西亞、韓國和越南等國去年就是通過讓本幣貶值很好地應對了外部需求驟降的打擊。
所 以說，懶人有懶福，“蝨子多了不痒債多了不愁、船到橋頭自然直”，這些諺語充分體現了勞動人民在解決復雜問題方面的智慧。《美國心理學會》新近一項調查顯 示，採用減壓技巧來應對壓力的美國人減少了。面對百年一遇的經濟危機，以及有可能進一步升至12%到13%的高失業率，美國人的心理壓力應該陡然增大才 對，為什麼他們應對壓力的辦法反而主要變成 “坐著吃”了？據我猜想，美國人民從自身實踐中得出了一個朴素結論：生活壓力，越減越大。用中國老百姓的話說，有些事，你當它是個事，它就是事兒，你不拿它當事兒，它就是個屁。
如 果明白了這個道理，你就能理解，為什麼政治家們總在開會討論問題，卻很少在會上明確解決問題。一年一度的APEC峰會即將在新加坡召開，與當今世界形形色 色的各種峰會一樣，此次峰會預計也不會達成重要協議。既然如此，世界各國領導人每年穿梭於各種國際會議忙的又是什麼呢？個中原因可能千千種，但最重要的恐 怕是，他們要把自己心目中的大事不斷拿到重要場合去討論。比如在此次APEC新加坡峰會上，匯率問題、維持全球刺激性資金流動的問題，以及推動自由貿易的 問題，預計都會成為議題。 這些問題可以說每一個都復雜而敏感，牽一發而動全身，如果逼全球主要領導人在一個限定時間內拿出明確的解決辦法，如果不把這些人逼瘋，可能也會誕生一兩個 拳擊或散打冠軍。但是，當這些議題在各種會議上反復被提及，不僅與會領導人，就是全球公眾的耳朵也被磨出繭子時，一旦有更棘手的問題出現，這些老生常談的 問題在人們心目中可能反倒不算“事兒”了，到那時，沒準幾個中低級別官員一捏咕，問題就解決了。當年中國的“入關”、“入世”問題談了十幾年遲遲解決不 了，911事件一發生，建立反恐統一戰線成為全球頭等大事，中國的入世難題迎刃而解。
"Google Offers Peek at Operating System, a Potential Challenge to Windows "
(87)Getting rid of what one does not want is not the same as getting what one wants.
Columbia Business School professor Rita McGrath studies innovation, corporate venturing, and entrepreneurship. She is well known for developing practical tools and frameworks to make the innovation process less risky and difficult, and to bring a dose of reality to growth programs. She works extensively with leadership teams in Global 1,000 companies.
...I was the last Ph.D. student ever to graduate from Ackoff's Social Systems Sciences program (founded in 1980) at The Wharton School. His program was a bit of an anomaly, even at the time. Wildly popular with Wharton's MBA students, it had an uneasy relationship with the more conventional academic activities of the school. In the Center's heyday, "Triple S" students did action research with companies, while their peers did statistical analysis of large data sets. His students were interested in ideas that cut across intellectual boundaries. They were pragmatic; some observers thought this left them without sufficient academic rigor. Eventually, because of this uneasy fit, Russ decided to leave the university. He retired in 1986 to found INTERACT, a consulting company. Ironically, his program in the 1980s was pursuing the kind of management training and problem solving that advocates are now urgently calling on business schools to provide.
Ackoff's ideas had a profound impact on business schools and on several generations of managers. At a time when business schools were becoming increasingly discipline-based and quantitative, he was an ardent advocate for viewing problems systematically, across intellectual boundaries, and with qualitative insight. In the program he designed, we learned to think the way architects do — to construct a whole solution out of constituent parts that work together, rather than to optimize any given piece of the solution. He was involved in businesses as diverse as selling beer, developing the first touch-tone phone, and sorting out incentive problems with public bus drivers. He had learned that all kinds of complex problems could be tackled by first understanding what kind of problem one was facing, then by working to "dissolve" the problem.
Russ never took himself, or the problems people were facing, too seriously. Iconoclastic and humorous in person, his books Management in Small Doses and Ackoff's Fables encouraged readers to find the humor in business situations. His wonderful writing was accessible to people who wouldn't exactly have been enthralled to read On Purposeful Systems: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Individual and Social Behavior as a System of Purposeful Events.
What Russ spent his life developing — a systems view of complex problems — has now been so widely adopted that we have forgotten that he was one of a relatively small band of scholars and teachers who pioneered this way of thinking.
Eventually Ackoff resumed his affiliation with Penn. In September 2000, he was honored by the establishment of the Ackoff Center for Advancement of Systems Approaches in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 2003, at age 87, he returned to Penn as Distinguished Affiliated Faculty to teach a graduate course in "Systems Thinking Applied to Management" and to advise graduate students.
If you have ever solved a problem not by breaking it down into constituent parts, but by looking at the whole thing systemically, or by re-framing the problem to begin with, you have probably been influenced by Russ Ackoff. He will be missed, but his ideas live on.