「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2016年1月14日 星期四

Toyota

This list is somehow needed to be updated soon.

豐田汽車公司

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豐田汽車公司
Toyota Motor Corporation logo
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上市公司
市場資料
東証1部7203
NYSETM
LSETYT
簡稱
{{{abbreviated_name}}}
成立時間
1937年
總部地點
日本愛知縣豐田市
東京都文京區
美國加州托倫斯
郵政編號
{{{zip_code}}}
服務範圍
{{{area_served}}}
電話號碼
{{{telephone_no}}}
重要人物
張富士夫, 董事長
豐田章男, 總裁
口號
前進 讓夢更近
汽車製造
豐田,LEXUS,大發汽車,日野卡車
{{{services}}}
資本額
{{{capital}}}
¥17.472兆日元(2004財年)
{{{operating_income}}}
{{{net_income}}}
總資產
淨資產
市值
299,394 (2007)
市盈率
{{{P/E ratio}}}
每股盈利
{{{earnings_per_share}}}
每股資產淨值
結算期
{{{accounting_period}}}
{{{parent}}}
主要股東
{{{major_shareholder}}}
主要部門
{{{divisions}}}
{{{subsid}}}
www.toyota.co.jp
{{{footnotes}}}

豐田市豐田自動車本社

豐田i-unit(高速姿勢mode)
日語寫法
日語原文 トヨタ自動車株式会社
假名 トヨタじどうしゃ
羅馬字 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha
豐田汽車公司(日語:トヨタ自動車株式会社,英語:Toyota Motor Corporation;東証1部7203NYSETMLSETYT)是一家總部設在日本愛知縣豐田市東京都文京區汽車工業製造公司,屬於三井財閥
豐田是包含日本在內的亞洲區中第一位,2008年首次在汽車銷售量超越通用汽車,成為全世界第一位的汽車生產廠商。而豐田亦是凌志大發日野品牌的母公司及富士重工業速霸陸汽車母公司)的最大股東。
日本通稱「トヨタ」(日本的電視台、電台等紛紛從2005年7月起由本來的「トヨタ自動車」改為這個稱呼),英語標記為「TOYOTA」,在豐田集團內簡寫為「TMC」。現任總裁是豐田章男

目錄

[隱藏]

[編輯] 歷史

豐田佐吉一手創辦的「豐田自動織機製作所」於1933年9月成立了汽車部門,這個提議是由豐田佐吉兒子,豐田喜一郎所提出的。但首任主席則由豐田利三郎出任。透過活用在織機製作上的鑄造、機械加工技術等的技巧,經過研究後終於在1935年開始製造汽車。1937年,汽車部門正式獨立出來,成立了「豐田汽車工業株式會社」(トヨタ自動車工業株式会社)。豐田是1949年後最早進入中國的西方汽車公司,現在在中國出銷售進口汽車外還和在天津成都以及廣州的合資工廠生產汽車。
豐田汽車得到了日本政府的支持,以緩解當時資金和物資的短缺,豐田成為日本軍方車輛的主要供應商,主要從事軍用卡車的生產,因此在戰爭末期,豐田的廠房被盟軍夷為平地。
隨著在後的1950年實施的財政收緊政策,公司陷入了經營危機。豐田喜一郎辭任主席一職,作為以帝國銀行(即其後的三井銀行,現今的三井住友銀行)・東海銀行(即其後的日本聯合銀行,現今的三菱東京日聯銀行)為首的銀行團緊急融資的條件,繼而成立了以強化銷售為主的「豐田汽車銷售株式會社」(トヨタ自動車販売株式会社),實行將製造及銷售分開。之後,該公司便一直與負責生產及開發的「豐田汽車工業」緊密聯繫,同步工作。但最終於1982年再次合併成為「豐田汽車株式會社」(トヨタ自動車株式会社)。值得一提,在1950年的經營危機之中,豐田也有參與,大量生產為朝鮮戰爭中美軍使用的卡車。
直至2003年3月為止,公司的總僱員數為65,551人,加上所有有聯繫的公司合計共有264,096名僱員。是全日本最大,世界第三大的企業。
公司的影響力,可見於總部所在的「舉母市」,因為豐田汽車將總部設在該市,使該市能夠迅速發展起來,遂改名為「豐田市」。
公司的新總部大樓於2005年建成。樓高14層,地底兩層,是一幢全以玻璃幕牆所覆蓋的現代化建築物。同年10月,從本來由通用汽車持用的大約20%的富士重工業股權中,取得8.7%的股權,成為了該公司的最大股東。豐田隨之宣佈會與富士重工業合作,作業務上的提攜。
據2006年5月3日出版的《紐約郵報》報導,在北美豐田總部當秘書的K小姐,數度被北美豐田主席大高英明帶到位於紐約曼哈頓區的中央公園,受到身體接觸等性騷擾行為。結果原主席、北美豐田及位於豐田市的豐田汽車總部被要求賠償1億9千萬美元(相當於210億日圓)。原主席大高以「繼續留任主席將會損害公司利益」為由提出請辭。但外界均視這次請辭只為調職。(美國法人性騷擾事件)
另外,位於名古屋站前的豐田大廈及每日大廈將於2007年重建成為「Midland Square」,新的名古屋辦事處及現時位於東京的營業部將會一併遷進新址。(與東和不動產每日新聞社做法一樣)
2008年第一季,生產了241萬輛車,取代生產225萬輛車的美國通用汽車,成為全球第一。然而受到金融海嘯影響,2009年一月豐田公佈二次大戰以來首次虧損,至2009年3月底為止的2008會計年度,豐田累計虧損達4,369億日圓(約台幣1,506億元),原主席渡邊捷昭下台由豐田家族第三代豐田章男接棒。

[編輯] 豐田家族

現任董事長奧田碩曾說過「豐田家族既是豐田集團的向心力,也是集團的領導者」,作為創業世家的豐田家族均擔當了豐田集團內各子公司的核心。按過往經 驗,一些通常受到創業家族成員長期介入的公司,經營情況大多會逐漸混亂起來。但是豐田的情況卻不同,豐田這個創業世家卻能把職務分配好,安定這樣頗大的一 個集團,帶領集團繼續穩步上揚。以下是詳細情況:
  • 豐田汽車名譽董事長:豐田章一郎(2005年日本國際博覽會協會會長及日本經濟團體聯合會名譽會長)
  • 豐田汽車最高顧問:豐田英二
  • 豐田汽車總裁:豐田章男
  • 豐田自動織機名譽董事長:豐田芳年
  • 豐田自動織機主席:豐田鐵郎
  • 愛新精機(AISIN)董事長:豐田幹司郎
  • 豐田紡織董事副主席:豐田周平
  • 東和不動產監查:豐田大吉郎

[編輯] 高階職

  • 董事長:張富士夫(日本經濟團體聯合會副會長)
  • 副董事長:中川勝弘
  • 總裁:豐田章男

[編輯] 經營


豐田生產中未剛好及時抵達的零件不會延遲後續零件組裝,寧可將零件先裝上或掛上後續再二次拆裝,也不庫存或停線待料。
經過之前所提及過在1950年的危機教訓後,豐田正式確立了像「改善」、「Just-in-time生產系統」(看板系統)以及豐田生產方式等 等的生產、經營技術。而且,亦開始重視銷售、不單靠銀行融資,努力於充實本身的資本,現以成為無借賃經營的優良企業中的佼佼者。由於豐田的內部儲備相當充 足,故又被稱為「豐田銀行」。根據2002年度的結算,豐田是首間日本企業的連結經常利潤超過了一兆日圓。而在2004年度的結算中,也是首間日本企業的 連結純利(以美國會計基準)超過了一兆日圓。
在90年代以後的不況期,其經營舉動也備受注目。最終豐田把其生產方式向其他企業出售。可是另一方面,其壓價至一毛錢也不放過的方式,被評猶如「把 乾毛巾扭盡」般,對一些與其有合約關係的公司以及大型的客戶(如製鐵商)強烈壓迫,受到嚴重批評。另外,豐田在各地所面對的負面新聞令其備受注目。如在興 建豐田商工會議所所需的9億日圓裡,由豐田市資助當中約7億日圓的建設費用;在興建名古屋站前的新總部大樓「Midland Square」上又收受市街地再開發補助金;其負責所有債務負擔的蒲郡海洋開發(Laguna)項目上又強求愛知縣蒲郡市增加投資;在項目中心部開設的海陽學園又偷步:在取得認可前先行評核獎學金得獎者等等欠缺社會性的負面新聞引起了社會的關注。

[編輯] 開發思想(80分主義)

花費六年時間研發,終於在1962年發 售的700cc小型大眾汽車.第一代的Publica,是一台為了以基本概念,去徹底實現價格低廉化及經濟性所設計的實用車種。可是不斷被消費者「反正都 要買,貴一點也無所謂」這樣的心理所打壓,結果使銷售量不振。車廠透過分析銷售量不振的原因,以及加裝上收音機及暖風機等等豪華設備後,銷售數字才得以上 昇。透過此次事件,使到「豐田的80分主義」思想因而產生。
80分主義,是由擔任1966年發 售的第一代Corolla(花冠)開發調查主任的長谷川龍雄所提出的思想。這個思想指出,既一方面要提高產品的完成度,另一方面不單只追求優越於其他廠商 的機能與性能,更要以萬人所接受的80分為合格目標,超越80分後再逐級攀上獲取更高分數,最終達致各方面均取得平衡的企業思想。之後,80分主義更加演 變成為了「80分主義+Alpha」,成為了針對舊車款及其他公司的差別化策略。
可是「80分」這一個字被批評為獨行獨斷,屢次受反對者批評為「不完美,偷工減料地造車」。由於對於「80分主義」的批評陸續浮現,所以豐田於1968年發售的小型貨車Hilux廣告上打著「101分主義」的旗號,算是應對了這些批評。

[編輯] 技術力

豐田從1950年代就開始著手投入品質管理。例如車門及車尾廂等開合部份的介面等狀況、隔音性能等等,對這些用家較易察覺部份的品質進行評價。豐田一方面繼續琢磨已很可靠的既有技術,另一方面又擅長以低成本來製造相對高質素製品的技術,故其下汽車經常被評價為低故障率。
另一方面對比其他車廠,由於豐田較為慎重於機械結構上的新技術導入,故經常被外面批評為「跟風」、「行為謹慎」及「只取人家之長」。觀乎1960年第2代的Corona(日冕),大眾對其單體構造車身的脆弱、以及柴油方式的不受歡迎之類的批評,可見豐田是受到顧客們如何嚴格回應自己研發的新技術的經驗所影響。
在1970年代後期,世界各地的小型汽車正循著前輪驅動方 向進行之際,豐田在推出前輪驅動的主力車款Corolla和Corona之前,先行推出過新車款如「Tercel.Corsa」,以及改良型的中級小型汽 車「Camry(冠).Vista(眺望)」等主力以外的車款。透過推出以上車款而獲得顧客的回應之後,仍然繼續一併推出兩種不同驅動方式的車款,可見其 策略慎重。
另外,由山葉(Yamaha)發動機提供高性能型雙凸輪軸引擎組件,又由本田引 進引擎的稀薄燃燒系統及廢氣淨化系統等,豐田雖然得到同業其他公司的援助,得以獲取如高度的技術及排氣對策等等的緊急需要,但是豐田傾向能把獲得的技術改 良,投放於其產品身上並發揮其實力。如開發為了使燃燒效率提高的狹角配置多閥雙凸輪軸引擎(High Mechanism Twincam),並把這項產品搭載於大量投產的車款之中可見一斑。1990年代後期,久未受過注目的豐田亦曾搶先把位於引擎部份的智慧可變汽門正時控制系統(Intelligent Valuable Valve Timing Control,VVT-i)普及化。(引擎可變汽門正時為義大利飛雅特汽車的專利技術,引擎可變汽門揚程為美國通用汽車之專利技術,引擎連續可變汽門正時為美國加州Clemson大學的專利技術)因為該系統能夠根據行車狀況,由電子系統控制汽門重疊角。所以豐田旗下大部份的車款,均能獲取日本國士交通省(前運輸省)所訂定的低排放量汽車標準。這套系統與日產汽車的NVCS,以及三菱汽車的MIVEC其實是同一個系統。
在經過1990年代的業界重組期之後,現在一般都會與集團內的各間公司共同開發。但小型汽車用的新型引擎以及車款的設計就會交予大發工業,而貨車的開發則會交予日野汽車。至於燃料電池車及以汽油和電池驅動的環保車款的開發,就會與因為提供零件而關係深厚的松下集團一同提攜。除此之外,豐田亦有出戰世界最頂級的一級方程式賽車等 的汽車運動;又投身於先進技術的開發及實用化,諸如燃料電池混合系統,以及G-Book.G-Book Alpha等的車用通訊系統等,把這些技術提供予集團以外的其他公司,以耽誤對網路的根本思想不理解的對手,本田技研工業推出同類產品於市場的時間,並試 圖挽回其營業成績。
北海道士別市擁用一個巨型試車場,又專門開發為降雪地區而設的車款,以及一些針對海外市場的商品,可見其多元化的一面。
但最近諸如花冠及普鋭斯等受歡迎的車款相繼出現問題須要回收。主要原因,是因為日本國內汽車市場競爭白熱化,為了勝出這場銷售戰,豐田與零件商聯手 有計劃地削減成本並同時提升生產效率。其中一項有力手段,就是不再開發及使用為特定車款而設的專用零件,轉而令零件共通化,適合各個車款。但結果卻出現共 通化的零件與汽車排斥的情況,因而回收數量大幅增加,成為問題弊端。

[編輯] 質量問題

  • 豐田招回17.3萬輛車剎車和燃油系統存在一定缺陷[1] 2005年06
  • 豐田將在全球召回16種車型127萬輛汽車前燈轉換系統故障[2] 2005-10
  • 豐田在英國招回第一代PRIUS汽車,漏電問題[3]Apr 6, 2006
  • 豐田招回近一百萬輛,要替換致方向盤失控的部件[4] May 30, 2006
  • 豐田汽車2006年三名主管因隱瞞故障未召回檢修被日本政府起訴http://antifraud.mofcom.gov.cn/cooperate/8_article_CO2006071400222.jsp
  • 2009年,大陸的豐田凱美瑞深陷「缺陷門」,危及品牌形象
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_48f5c1ac0100cp0m.html

[編輯] 銷售策略

[編輯] 品牌

[編輯] TOYOTA(豐田)

從創業當初開始,就在全日本各地尋求當地資本,從而整合成為早期的銷售網路。這一點可以看到受美國的通用汽車所影響。「銷售豐田」這稱號,奠定了豐田高銷售能力的形象。時至今日,豐田旗下在日本國內擁有四個零售網路。
1954年發售的1000cc SKB貨車(1956年改稱「Toyoace」),其半開放式的駕駛艙設計,成為了當時席捲日本國內的機動三輪車(俗稱『三腳雞』)的對抗商品。由於其策略性地以較低價格發售,結果取得了空前成功。這亦成為了契機,使日本的小型貨車市場,由三輪朝向四輪汽車。
另外,在1955年發 售的第一代Crown(皇冠),其前輪的獨立懸掛架及低地台設計的底盤,成為了與當時歐洲車構造相同而被大量生產的日本製汽車車款。自此之後,Crown 以日本國內專用車款為目標繼續發展,成為了日本國內保守階層及官方用車,同時也開始作為商業用車。踏入2000年後,開始在中國大陸生產。
60年代以後,以穩重保守的設計、充裕的排氣量及車身設計,以及提供多種選配的策略,豐田成功壓倒與其競爭的其他對手。
1989年,一句「全新豐田開始行走」宣傳語句標致著豐田進入一個新時代的開始,同時也使用了全新設計的標誌。
豐田集團的銷售量也包含子公司日本大發汽車(Daihatsu),大發汽車主要生產小型車與排氣量660cc以下的迷你輕型車為主,這類660cc迷你車輕型車售價便宜在日本很受歡迎,大發的迷你輕型車年銷售量可達數十萬輛。

[編輯] LEXUS(凌志、雷克薩斯)

主條目:LEXUS
80年代後期,豐田開發「Lexus LS」(日本稱作『Toyota Celsior』)車款,以嘗試進入當時日本汽車生產商均不能征服的美國豪華房車市場。此次嘗試成功建立了「Lexus」的高級汽車品牌。直至現在,已經能與寶馬賓士等傳統豪華汽車品牌匹敵。
「Lexus」的成功,對於賓士、寶馬、捷豹等世界著名的豪華汽車品牌造成強大的衝擊。對於過去在大眾化汽車市場上壟斷過半數的廠商,如福斯日產來說,此舉亦同時替他們締造了製造豪華房車的好時機。
「Lexus」品牌亦同時在日本國內開展。2005年8月30日開始日本國內亦引入了專為日本市場而設的GS系列、IS系列及SC系列的3系車款。IS系列則延遲一個月後9月28日開始發售。雖然以現時來講,銷量只僅次於賓士及寶馬(2006年1月),但仍與當初的目標相差一半,究竟要如何增加從其他品牌中轉移顧客過來,成為了豐田現在要面對的問題。

[編輯] SCION(賽昂)

「Scion」是以美國年青人為主的品牌。這個品牌視被稱為「Y世代」 的青少年為主要銷售對象。豐田一向被評為把主要客源定在年齡較高,一般較為成熟的顧客身上。要如何爭取年青一代的客源成為了課題。故豐田在商品開發構想及 廣告宣傳上採用了嶄新手法,試圖改變大家一貫對豐田感到厭倦的形象。「Scion」的外型設計緊貼潮流,作為一件潮流商品,可按照顧客喜好而作出多方面的 更改,實行把汽車「個性化」,開拓一個既不是大眾化,又不是高級房車的新種類。

[編輯] 商品開展

豐田的方針是最先推出者就可確保市場佔有率,所以必然培育出保守的商品。但是另一方面作為市場的領導者,就必需要率先開拓新的市場。

[編輯] 銷售豐田

豐田在50年代後期至60年代,相繼推出Crown、Corona及Publica三款汽車,構成了乘用車的基本雛形。及後在60年代後期,各個車 種相繼進行型號更改,使其大型化、豪華化,亦加添一些中級的型號。舉例來說,在Publica(即其後的Starlet)與Corona中間引入 Corolla;再在Corona與Crown之間引入Corona Mark II(即其後的Mark II);及在Corolla與Corona之間引入Celica等。透過這種車種的增加,由Publica作為入門型號,到Corolla、 Corona、Mark II至豐田的旗艦型號Crown,使其商品作金字塔式的形狀展開。
這種形式的開展進一步被日本慣用的年功序列及終身僱用制度所支持。因為正當日本的上班族被承諾有進升及加薪機會的時候,這促使他們轉購一些更加高級的型號。在80年代曾經使用過的一句宣傳語句「總有一天Crown」正好反映了豐田的這種銷售策略。另一方面,銷售網路的配備亦非常完善,有時在不同網路甚至會投入使用同一底盤同一車身,但作了細微更改的「兄弟車款」,都促使銷售網路間的競爭,進而擴大銷情。
像這樣的商品開展,重視顧客動向的經營策略,使到在60年代,日本開始汽車化之際,相對於「技術日產」而被評為「銷售豐田」的稱號。

[編輯] 多樣化市場

近年,汽車產業承接著先進國家的市場成熟,社會環境變化、世代交替以及價值觀變化等等因素,在豐田商品身上亦可見到富多樣化的特徵。
1997年,一句「要趕上21世紀」而向市場推出了世界首台大量生產的混燃汽車Prius。當時的業界認為,推出「環保汽車」的時間尚早,結果先拔頭籌取得成功。
同年宣佈推出的大熱型號Harrier(Lexus RX),成功開拓了高級SUV的市場,其他廠商亦相繼倣效。
至於1999年的 Vitz(其他市場稱Yaris,香港曾稱Echo),碰巧日本進入長期衰退狀態,正是推出小型汽車的好時機,結果豐田亦在這一部份的市場大量發展。在北 美方面,向來銷售情況不好的年青人車款,曾經過經濟摩擦而一時暫緩的「敞蓬小型貨車」(Pickup,大陸稱皮卡)市場,豐田亦都嘗試在各分野內進行促 銷。分別在2002年開始以年青人為主的品牌「Scion」以及在2006年計劃全面進入皮卡市場。

[編輯] 中國策略

與中國的第一汽車集團有提攜關係。另外在2004年9月與廣州汽車集團共同設立一間合併公司。
  • 2002年10月開始在天津一汽豐田廠房生產「威馳」(Vios),開始進軍延遲起步的中國市場。
  • 2003年尾開始在四川一汽豐田廠房生產「陸地巡洋艦」(Land Cruiser)。
  • 2004年春開始在天津一汽豐田廠房生產「花冠」(Corolla)。
  • 2005年3月開始在天津一汽豐田廠房生產「皇冠」(Crown)。
  • 2005年秋開始在天津一汽豐田廠房生產「銳志」(Reiz,日本稱Mark X)。
  • 2005年12月開始在四川一汽豐田廠房生產「普銳斯」(Prius)。
  • 2006年5月開始在廣州豐田廠房生產「佳美」(Camry)。

[編輯] 汽車運動

[編輯] 拉力賽

豐田的汽車運動,要數1957年澳洲拉力賽為首次。當時參賽的是Crown,結果獲得第47位。
從70年代開始直至1999年為主,豐田的歐洲車隊曾以Corolla Levin、Sprinter Trueno、Celica以及Supra參戰世界拉力錦標賽(WRC)。在1975年芬蘭的千湖拉力賽初次贏得WRC的冠軍殊榮。之後在1993年1994年連續兩年奪得最佳車手及最佳車廠銜頭。
但在1995年WRC加泰羅尼亞賽站中,被發現違反賽規擅自加裝用以限制引擎吸氣量的組件來作弊,因而被取消1995年的所有積分,以及受到直至1996年為止都不能再參加任何賽事的停賽處分。
之後在1997年, 捨棄笨重的Celica,換上了由法國籍車手Didier Auriol駕駛搭載了3S-G引擎的Corolla。翌年1998年西班牙籍車手Carlos Sainz從福特過檔而來,以開幕戰的優勝做掩飾,結果勝出兩場,以車廠排名第2位的佳績完結一季。翌年1999年,雖然只勝出於中國拉力賽,但被提名入 選,最終相隔5年第3度奪得最佳車廠銜頭。可是,在義大利聖里模賽站前歐洲車隊宣傳將會參戰一級方程式賽車,結果終結了日本最大汽車生產商27年來參與拉力賽的挑戰。

[編輯] 賽車(Prototype)

1982年在日本舉辦的世界耐力賽,與「童夢」及「TOM'S」共同開發的Celica Turbo C,作為賽車(C組車)參賽。
1983年,參與從該年開始舉辦的全日本耐力賽(1987年改稱全日本賽車賽),相繼投入與童夢及TOM'S共同開發的4氣筒渦輪增壓83C(83 年)~88C(88年),8氣筒渦輪增壓的88CV(88年)~92CV(92年)。在1987年更開始以豐田車隊的名義參賽。
1985年,開始參與在法國舉行的利曼24小時耐力賽。 要數最初一台搭載了豐田引擎的機器,該是1975年的Sigma MC-75。雖然也有某幾年沒有參加,但到1999年為止也有參加該項賽事。從1985年至1990年均使用渦輪增壓引擎車參賽,1992年至1993年 則使用一台搭載了與當時一級方程式賽車同樣規定,自然吸氣式3.5升10氣筒引擎的TS010參賽,在1992年獲得第2位。1994年把92C-V改裝 成94C-V出場,可是遇上同時的保時捷車廠把962C作GT形式改裝,結果只能屈服於這台可說是犯規的962GT手上,最終得第2位收場。至於在1998年至1999年則以Toyota GT-One(TS020)迎戰。豐田雖有壓倒性的機器性能,可是相繼遇上難題最終只以1992的最高成績第2位作結。
1992年的世界賽(SWC)以TS010參賽,在第一站義大利蒙扎(Monza)賽道由日本車手小河等勝出。

[編輯] 一級方程式賽車

主條目:豐田F1

[編輯] 其他

從1994年到1998年參與全日本巡迴賽(JTCC),更在1995年參與全日本GT賽(現稱Super GT)。在GT500級別當中,2005年以Supra參賽,從2006年開始將會以Lexus SC參賽。至於GT300級別方面則會以Celica及MR-S參賽。
從1996年開始亦參與美國盃賽(American Championship Car Racing),作為引擎生產商。在2002年獲得最佳車手及最佳生產商兩項殊榮。2003年開始,更加參與印地賽車聯盟(IRL)賽事,身為日本的生產商初次在世界三大賽事之一的「Indy500」取得冠軍,在參與IRL的首年即獲得最佳車手及最佳生產商兩項殊榮。可是豐田卻宣佈在2006年會退出IRL賽事,結果只在2005年取得一個杯別結束。另一方面,豐田從2000年開始參與北美房車賽(NASCAR), 派出Celica參與NASCAR的Goodies Dash系列賽事。2004年更加是史上首次有新的生產商參與NASCAR最頂級的3項賽事。豐田以Tundra參與Craftsman Truck系列賽事。其後豐田更宣佈在2007年將會以Camry出戰NASCAR裡最高峰的級別,NEXTEL Cup及Busch Series賽事。
另外在業餘賽事方面,豐田除舉辦只限Vitz或Altezza車款的「NetzCup」,以及專為拉力賽初學者而設的「TRD Vitz Challenge」賽事之外,還開辦了以培養年輕車手為目的的少年方程式賽事「Formula Toyota」,實行擴大各項目的實力。

[編輯] 生產地點

[編輯] 日本國內

[編輯] 直營

  • 總部工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1938年成立:工場編號A11
    貨車、Land Cruiser的底盤
  • 元町工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1959年成立
    Crown、Mark X、Estima、Brevis、Progres、Mark II Blit
  • 高岡工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1966年成立:工場編號A31、A32
    Corolla、Corolla Fielder、Corolla Runx、Allex、Vitz、ist、Sienta、Porte、Ractis
  • 堤工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1970年成立:工場編號A41、A42
    Premio、Allion、Camry、Vitz、Caldina、Prius、SCION tC、汽車底部機械零件
  • 上鄉工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1965年成立
    6氣筒引擎、其他
  • 貞寶工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1986年成立
    工場生產設備、其他
  • 廣瀨工場(愛知縣豐田市)-1989年成立
    電子裝備零件、其他
  • 三好工場(愛知縣西加茂郡三好町)-1968年成立
    汽車底部機械零件、其他
  • 明知工場(愛知縣西加茂郡三好町)-1973年成立
    汽車底部機械零件、引擎、其他
  • 下山工場(愛知縣西加茂郡三好町)-1975年成立
    汽車底部機械零件、其他
  • 田原工場(愛知縣田原市)-1979年成立:工場編號A51-A54
    • 第一製造部:Lexus GX(Land Cruiser Prado Base)、Land Cruiser Prado、4Runner(美國市場Hilux Surf)
    • 第二製造部:RAV4
    • 第三製造部:Celsior、Lexus LS(前Celsior,2006年預定改款)、Lexus GS(前Aristo)、Lexus IS(前Altezza)
      注意:第三製造部是Lexus的專用工場
  • 衣浦工場(愛知縣碧南市)-1978年成立
    汽車底部機械零件、其他

[編輯] 關連公司營運

[編輯] 海外

合計26個國家,51間公司

[編輯] 歐洲

  • 英國
    • Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Limited
      Avensis

[編輯] 北美

[編輯] 亞洲

  • 中華民國臺灣
    • 和泰汽車股份有限公司
    • 國瑞汽車股份有限公司(中壢工場、觀音工場)
      Vios、Corolla Altis、Camry、Wish、Yaris、Innova
  • 泰國
    • Toyota Motor Thailand(森姆朗工場)
      Hilux、Fortuner
    • Gateway工場
      Vios、Corolla、Camry、Wish
  • 印尼
    • Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia(遜達工場)
      Kijang Pickup
    • 加羅旺工場
      Innova
  • 印度
    • Toyota Kirloskar Motor(Bangalore工場)
      Innova、Corolla
  • 中華人民共和國

[編輯] 現行車款

[編輯] 日本國內發售車款

[編輯] 房車(Sedan)

[編輯] 跑車(Coupe)

  • MR-S
  • MR-2 (AW11/SW20) 已停產
  • Supra (JZA70/JZA80) 已停產
  • Celica (ST165/ST185/ST205/ST231) 已停產

[編輯] 旅行車(Wagon)

[編輯] 七人車(Minivan)

[編輯] 小型汽車(Hatchback)

[編輯] SUV

[編輯] 商用車

[編輯] 其他車款

[編輯] 只在海外發售車款

[編輯] 歐洲

[編輯] 北美

[編輯] 亞洲

[編輯] 澳洲

[編輯] TOYOTA 台灣

  • 轎車
    • Corolla ALTIS 1.6 & 1.8 & 2.0(2008年全新改款,1.8升高昂售價引起不小爭議)
    • Corona PREMIO 1.6 & 2.0(已停產)
    • TERCEL(已停產,後繼車VIOS取代)
    • VIOS 1.5
    • YARIS 1.5
    • CAMRY 2.0 & 2.4 & 3.5 V6
  • 轎式旅行車
    • WISH 2.0
    • INNOVA 2.7
  • 休旅車/貨車/箱型車
    • ZACE(已停產)
    • ZACE SURF 2.4 RWD/4WD(已停產)
    • HIACE SOLEMIO(已停產)
  • 進口車
    • PREVIA 2.4 & 3.5 V6
    • PRIUS Hybrid
    • RAV4

[編輯] 二戰時期豐田軍用卡車車型

  1. Toyota KB/KC Truck
  2. Type 1 4x2 Toyota GB

[編輯] 相關新聞

豐田汽車中國遭遇「斷軸門」

[編輯] 參看

[編輯] 外部連結


Toyota

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This article contains Japanese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.
Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha
トヨタ自動車株式会社
Type Public (TYO: 7203) & (NYSE: TM)
Founded 1937
Founder(s) Kiichiro Toyoda
Headquarters Toyota City, Japan;
Tokyo, Japan
Key people Kiichiro Toyoda (Founder),
Fujio Cho (Chairman and Representative Director),
Katsuaki Watanabe (Vice chairman and Representative Director),
Akio Toyoda (President and Representative Director),
Shoichiro Toyoda (Honorary Chairman)[1]
Industry Automotive
Robotics Financial services
Biotechnology
Products Economy/mainstream/luxury vehicles
Revenue USD $263.42 billion (2009)[2]
Operating income USD $-4.56 billion (2009)[2]
Net income USD $-4.33 billion (2009)[2]
Total assets USD $324.98 billion (2009)[2]
Total equity USD $-5.54 billion (2009)[2]
Employees 316,121[3]
Subsidiaries 522
Website www.toyoto.co.jp/en/
Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社 Toyota Jidōsha Kabushiki-gaisha?) (TYO: 7203) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and the world's largest automaker.[4][5][6] Toyota employs approximately 320,808 people worldwide.
The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota also owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu and Hino Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries, Isuzu Motors, Yamaha Motors, and Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.[7]
Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City and Nagoya (both in Aichi), and in Tokyo. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota Financial Services and also builds robots. Toyota Industries and Finance divisions form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.
On May 8, 2009, Toyota reported a record annual net loss of US$4.4 billion, making it the latest automobile maker to be severely affected by the 2007-2009 financial crisis.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Name


Toyota headquarters in Toyota City, Japan
Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda" (トヨダ), from the family name of the company's founder, Kiichiro Toyoda. In September 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Out of 27,000 entries the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. But Risaburo Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" (トヨタ) because it took eight brush strokes (a fortuitous number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler (leaving off two ticks at the end) and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonant is considered "murky" or "muddy" sound compared to the voiceless consonant, which is "clear"). Since "Toyoda" literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company from associations with old-fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the "Toyota Motor Company".[8][9][10]
In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using traditional Chinese characters, e.g., Hong Kong and Taiwan, Toyota is known as "豐田"[11]. In predominantly Chinese speaking countries using simplified Chinese characters (eg China), Toyota is known as "丰田"[12] (pronounced as "Fēngtián" in the Mandarin Chinese dialect). These are the same characters as the founding family's name "Toyoda" in Japanese, which translate to "fertile rice paddies" in the Chinese language as well.
From September 1947, Toyota's small-sized vehicles were sold under the name "Toyopet" (トヨペット).[13] The first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA[14] but it also included vehicles such as the Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck,[15] Toyopet Crown and the Toyopet Corona. However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of Toys and pets.[16] The name was soon dropped for the American market but continued in other markets until the mid 1960s.

[edit] History

Toyota started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda.[17] Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937.

[edit] Company overview


With over 30 million sold, the Corolla is one of the most popular and best selling cars in the world.
The Toyota Motor Company received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumers in the lucrative U.S. market began turning to small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an "entry level" product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality in order to keep the price low.
By the early sixties, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. The Chicken tax of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported commercials vans.[18] In response to the tariff, Toyota, Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. began building plants in the U.S. by the early eighties.[18]
In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with GM called NUMMI, the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, operating an automobile-manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.
In the 1990s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T100 (and later the Tundra); several lines of SUVs; a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara; and the Scion brand, a group of several affordable, yet sporty, automobiles targeted specifically to young adults. Toyota also began production of the world's best-selling hybrid car, the Prius, in 1997.
With a major presence in Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up TMME, Toyota Motor Europe Marketing & Engineering, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the company's cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchange.
In 2001, Toyota's Toyo Trust and Banking merged to form the UFJ, United Financials of Japan, which was accused of corruption by the Japan's government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections.[19] The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazine's largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyota's chairman serving as a director.[20] At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japan's banking crisis, the UFJ was merged again to become Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot, a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.
Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes 2000 list of the world's leading companies for the year 2005.[21] The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.[22]
On December 7, 2004, a U.S. press release was issued stating that Toyota would be offering Sirius Satellite Radios. However, as late as January 27, 2007, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite radio kits were not available for Toyota factory radios.[citation needed] While the press release enumerated nine models, only limited availability existed at the dealer level in the U.S. As of 2008, all Toyota and Scion models have either standard or available XM radio kits. Major Lexus dealerships have been offering satellite radio kits for Lexus vehicles since 2005, in addition to factory-equipped satellite radio models.
In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full size truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. "Motor Trend" named the Tundra "Truck of the Year," and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models - the Corolla and Yaris - as gas prices have risen rapidly in the last few years.

[edit] Logo and Branding

In 1936, in anticipation for the launch for the Model AA, which was Toyota's first passenger car, Toyoda held a public competition to establish a new symbol mark to promote its vehicles. The company indicated that the new design should convey the feeling of speed. Twenty-seven thousand entrants answered the call and submitted their ideas to Toyoda. The winning design led to a change in the name of the automobiles and plants from "Toyoda" to "Toyota." The name change made the Japanese lettering more streamlined and was also chosen because the number of strokes to write Toyota in Japanese (eight) was thought to bring luck and prosperity. The sound of the word "Toyota" was also deemed more appealing. The Model AA was subsequently launched with the new logo. While the logo is no longer used on any product the mark is still used today as the corporate emblem of Toyota Motor Corporation and can be seen on their Headquarters in Aichi.
As the company expanded in the decades ahead, Toyota sought ways to consolidate the brand and raise international brand awareness. Although the mark "TOYOTA," in roman type, was in wide use, the lack of branding guidelines meant interpretation differed from country to country, resulting in an inconsistent global message.
Toyota's current logo used on its vehicles was introduced in 1989, to differentiate the Toyota brand from the newly launched Lexus brand. The Toyota Mark consists of three ovals: the two perpendicular center ovals represent a relationship of mutual trust between the customer and Toyota. These ovals combine to symbolize the letter "T" for Toyota. The space in the background implies a global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future. The logo appears with the "TOYOTA" letter type that had been in use before.[23]
The logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, and dealer signage starting in 1990 and on the cars themselves in 1991.

[edit] Toyota philosophy

Toyota's management philosophy has evolved from the company's origins and has been reflected in the terms "Lean Manufacturing" and Just In Time Production, which it was instrumental in developing.[24] The Toyota Way has four components:
  1. Long-term thinking as a basis for management decisions.
  2. A process for problem-solving.
  3. Adding value to the organization by developing its people.
  4. Recognizing that continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning.[25]
The Toyota Way incorporates the Toyota Production System.

[edit] Toyota Production System

Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production. Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wiggly's just-in-time distribution system, one that they followed the writings of W. Edwards Deming, and one that they were given the principles from an Army training program. It is possible that all are true. Regardless of the origin, the principles, described in Toyota's management philosophy, The Toyota Way, are as follows:
  1. Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term goals
  2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
  3. Use "pull" systems to avoid overproduction
  4. Level out the workload
  5. Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time
  6. Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
  7. Use visual control so no problems are hidden
  8. Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes
  9. Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others
  10. Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company’s philosophy
  11. Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve
  12. Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu)
  13. Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly
  14. Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement

[edit] Operations


Toyota Pavilion at the Expo in Aichi
Toyota has grown to a large multinational corporation from where it started and expanded to different worldwide markets and countries. It displaced GM and became the world's largest automaker for the year 2008. It held the title of the most profitable automaker ($11 billion in 2006) along with increasing sales in, among other countries, the United States. The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. Toyota also owns majority stakes in Daihatsu, and 16.7% of Fuji Heavy Industries, which manufactures Subaru vehicles. They also acquired 5.9% of Isuzu Motors Ltd. on November 7, 2006 and will be introducing Isuzu diesel technology into their products.
Toyota has introduced new technologies including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gas-electric vehicles, of which it says it has sold 1 million globally (2007-06-07),[26] Advanced Parking Guidance System (automatic parking), a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission. Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J.D. Power and Consumer Reports.[27]
In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500,000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. Its also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.[28]
According to the 2008 Fortune Global 500, Toyota Motor is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of 2001, it has gained market share in the United States. Toyota's market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has three tenths of one percent market share, compared to nearly two percent market share as the U.S. luxury segment leader.
In the first three months of 2007, Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2.348 million units. Toyota's brand sales had risen 9.2% largely on demand for Corolla and Camry sedans. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. In November 2006, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas added a facility in San Antonio.[29] Toyota has experienced quality problems and was reprimanded by the government in Japan for its recall practices.[30] Toyota currently maintains over 16% of the US market share and is listed second only to GM in terms of volume.[31] Toyota Century is the official state car of the Japanese imperial family, namely for the Emperor of Japan Akihito.
Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of 2008 as it was forced in December 2008 to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years.[32] In January 2009 it announced the closure of all of its Japanese plants for 11 days to reduce output and stocks of unsold vehicles.[33]
Early in 2009, media sources reported that Akio Toyoda, grandson of the founder, will be promoted in June from vice-president to the position of President, replacing Katsuaki Watanabe.[34] Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, 2009 by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa.[35][36]

[edit] Worldwide presence


The Camry is assembled in several facilities around the world including Australia, China ,Taiwan, UAE, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, India and the United States.
Toyota has factories in most parts of the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets. Toyota has manufacturing or assembly plants in Japan, Australia, India, Canada, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Colombia, the United Kingdom, the United States, UAE, France, Brazil, Portugal, and more recently, Argentina, Czech Republic, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand, Egypt, China, Vietnam, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Russia.
In 2002, Toyota initiated the "Innovative International Multi-purpose vehicle" project (IMV) to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than 140 countries worldwide. IMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia and manual transmissions in the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. For vehicle assembly, Toyota would use plants in Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina, South Africa and Pakistan. These four main IMV production and export bases supply Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Latin America and the Middle East with three IMV vehicles: The Toyota Hilux (Vigo), the Fortuner, and the Toyota Innova.[37]
Toyota has invested heavily in vehicles with lower emissions, for example the Prius, based on technology such as the Hybrid Synergy Drive. In 2002, Toyota successfully road-tested a new version of the RAV4 which was powered by a Hydrogen fuel cell. Scientific American called the company its Business Brainwave of the Year in 2003 for commercializing an affordable hybrid car.

[edit] Toyota North America

Toyota Motor North America headquarters is located in New York City and operates at a holding company level in North America. Its manufacturing headquarters is located in Hebron, Kentucky, and is known as Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, or TEMA.
Toyota Canada Inc. has been in production in Canada since 1983 with an aluminium wheel plant in Delta, British Columbia which currently employs a workforce of roughly 260. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario since 1988, now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles and Lexus RX 350 luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4,300 workers. Its second assembly operation in Woodstock, Ontario began manufacturing the RAV4 late in 2008.[38] In 2006, Toyota's subsidiary Hino Motors opened a heavy duty truck plant, also in Woodstock, employing 45 people and producing 2000 trucks annually.[39]
Toyota has a large presence in the United States with five major assembly plants in Huntsville, Alabama; Georgetown, Kentucky; Princeton, Indiana; San Antonio, Texas; Buffalo, West Virginia. A new plant slated to be built in Blue Springs, Mississippi has been put on hold owing to the financial crisis that erupted in late 2008. Toyota had a joint-venture operation with General Motors at New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI), in Fremont, California, which began in 1984 and ended in 2009.[40] It still has a joint-venture with Subaru at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. (SIA), in Lafayette, Indiana, which started in 2006. Production on a new manufacturing plant in Tupelo, Mississippi was scheduled for completion in 2010 but is currently on indefinite hold. North America is a major automobile market for Toyota. In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others.
Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the U.S. are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Toyota uses a number of slogans in its American TV commercials such as It's time to move forward, Smart way to keep moving forward, or Moving forward. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Toyota is also pushing hybrid vehicles in the US such as the Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, and various Lexus products.
Toyota has sold more hybrid vehicles in the country than any other manufacturer. Toyota is a public corporation and the company's shares are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange. Toyota also sponsors Club Deportivo Guadalajara.

[edit] Electric Technology


Toyota Prius, flagship of Toyota's hybrid technology
Toyota is one of the largest companies to push hybrid vehicles in the market and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, an example being the Toyota Prius. The company eventually began providing this option on the main smaller cars such as Camry and later with the Lexus divisions, producing some hybrid luxury vehicles. It labeled such technology in Toyota cars as "Hybrid Synergy Drive" and in Lexus versions as "Lexus Hybrid Drive."
The Prius has become the top selling hybrid car in America. Toyota, as a brand, now has three hybrid vehicles in its lineup: the Prius, Highlander, and Camry. The popular minivan Toyota Sienna is scheduled to join the hybrid lineup by 2010, and by 2030 Toyota plans to offer its entire lineup of cars, trucks, and SUVs with a Hybrid Synergy Drive option.[citation needed]
Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota reached 1.0 million vehicles by May 31, 2007, and the 2.0 million mark was reached by August 31, 2009, with hybrids sold in 50 countries.[41][42] Toyota's hybrid sales are led by the Prius, with worldwide cumulative sales of 1.43 million by Augut 2009.[41] Toyota's CEO has committed to eventually making every car of the company a hybrid vehicle.[43][44]

Lexus LS 600h hybrid sedan.
Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, consisting of the GS 450h, RX 400h, and launched in 2007, the LS 600h/LS 600h L.
Toyota has said it plans to make a hybrid-electric system available on every vehicle it sells worldwide sometime in the 2010s.[45]
Toyota and Honda have already said they've halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives).[46]
Hybrids are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future vehicle market.[47]

[edit] Plug-in hybrids

After General Motors announced it would produce the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, Toyota announced that it, too, would make one.[48] Toyota is currently testing its "Toyota Plug-in HV" in Japan, the United States, and Europe. Like GM's Volt, it uses a lithium-ion battery pack. The PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) could have a lower environmental impact than existing hybrids.[49][50]
On June 5, 2008, A123Systems announced that its Hymotion plug-in hybrid conversion kits for the Prius would be installed by six dealers, including four Toyota dealerships: Westboro Toyota in Boston, Fitzgerald Toyota in Washington D.C., Toyota of Hollywood in Los Angeles, and the Minneapolis-based Denny Hecker Automotive Group, which sells multiple brands.[51]

[edit] All-electric vehicles

Toyota is speeding up the development of vehicles that run only on electricity with the aim of mass-producing them in the early part of next decade. Road tests for the current prototype, called "e-com", had ended in 2006.[52]

[edit] Pickup Trucks


2007 Tundra Double Cab
The Tundra is a full-size pickup truck sold by Toyota that originally went into production in 1999 (as a 2000 model year model), Currently, the Tundra has been on the market for more than half a decade, and has captured 16 percent of the full-size half-ton market.
The all new Tundra is assembled in two different locations, both inside the United States. The Standard and Double Cabs are assembled in San Antonio, Texas, while the Crew Max is assembled in Mooreland, Indiana. Toyota Motor Corporation assembled around 150,000 Standard and Double Cabs, and only 70,000 Crew Max's in 2007. As of November 2008 the San Antonio Plant will be the only one producing Tundra Trucks. exported to the Latin American
In addition to the Tundra, Toyota also produces the Tacoma, with a smaller body and smaller engine than its bigger brother.
Outside the United States, Toyota produces the Hilux in Standard and double cab, gasoline and diesel engine, 2WD and 4WD versions.The BBC's Top Gear TV show featured 2 episodes of a Hilux that was virtually indestructible.[53]

[edit] Motorsport

Toyota is active in the motorsports and sponsors such events through their cars among others.

[edit] TRD

Toyota Racing Development was brought about to help develop true high performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their after market tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in all forms of racing.

[edit] Non-automotive activities

[edit] Aerospace

Toyota is a minority share holder in Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, having invested US$67.2 million in the new venture which will produce the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, slated for first deliveries in 2013.[54] Toyota has also studied participation in the general aviation market, and contracted with Scaled Composites to produce a proof-of-concept aircraft, the TAA-1 in 2002.[55]

[edit] Philanthropy

Toyota is supporter of the Toyota Family Literacy Programme along with National Center for Family Literacy, helping low-income community members for education, United Negro College Fund (40 annual scholarships), National Underground Railroad Freedom Center ($1 million) among others.[56] Toyota created the Toyota USA Foundation.

[edit] Higher education

Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in 1981, as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. Toyota Technological Institute founded the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago in 2003. Toyota is supporter of the "Toyota Driving Expectations Program," "Toyota Youth for Understanding Summer Exchange Scholarship Program," "Toyota International Teacher Program," "Toyota TAPESTRY," "Toyota Community Scholars" (scholarship for high school students), "United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Internship Program," and "Toyota Funded Scholarship."[57] It has contributed to a number of local education and scholarship programs for the University of Kentucky, Indiana, and others.[57]

[edit] Robotics

In 2004, Toyota showcased its trumpet playing robot.[58] Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment. A specific example of Toyota's involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it "allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time" with their mind.[59] The thought controls allow the wheelchair to go left, right and forward with a delay between thought and movement of just 125 milliseconds.[59]

[edit] Finance

Toyota Financial Services Corporation provides financing to Toyota customers.

[edit] Agricultural biotechnology

Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology, including:

[edit] Financial information

Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999.[60]
As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 540 consolidated subsidiaries and 226 affiliates.

[edit] Government bailouts

Toyota's financial unit has asked for an emergency loan from a state-backed lender on March 16, 2009, with reports putting the figure at more than $3 billion. It says the international financial situation is squeezing its business, forcing it to ask for an emergency loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. It is the first time the state-backed bank has been asked to lend to a Japanese car manufacturer.[61]

[edit] Production and sales numbers


Typical breakdown of sales by region
Calendar Year Total Japan United States
Prod'n Sales Prod'n Sales Sales
1935

20

1936

1,142

1937

4,013

1938

4,615

1939

11,981

1940

14,787

1941

14,611

1942

16,302

1943

9,827

1944

12,720

1945

3,275

1946

5,821

1947

3,922

1948

6,703

1949

10,824

1950

11,706

1951

14,228

1952

42,106

1953

16,496

1954

22,713

1955

22,786

1956

46,716

1957

79,527

1958

78,856

1959

101,194

1960

154,770

1961

210,937

1962

230,350

1963

318,495

1964

425,764

1965

477,643

1966

587,539

1967

832,130

1968

1,097,405

1969

1,471,211

1970

1,609,190

1971

1,955,033

1972

2,087,133

1973

2,308,098

1974

2,114,980

1975

2,336,053

1976

2,487,851

1977

2,720,758

1978

2,929,157

1979

2,996,225

1980

3,293,344

1981

3,220,418

1982

3,144,557

1983

3,272,335

1984

3,429,249

1985

3,665,622

1986

3,660,167

1987

3,638,279

1988

3,956,697[62] 2,120,273[62]
1989

3,975,902[62] 2,308,863[62]
1990

4,212,373[62] 2,504,291[62]
1991

4,085,071[62] 2,355,356[62]
1992

3,931,341[62] 2,228,941[62]
1993

3,561,750[62] 2,057,848[62]
1994

3,508,456[62] 2,031,064[62]
1995

3,171,277[62] 2,060,125[62]
1996

3,410,060[62] 2,135,276[62]
1997

3,502,046[62] 2,005,949[62]
1998




1999




2000



1,619,206[63]
2001



1,741,254
2002



1,756,127[64]
2003



1,866,314
2004



2,060,049[65]
2005



2,260,296
2006



2,542,524[66]
2007 8,180,000[67] 8,524,000[67] 5,100,000[67] 2,273,000[67] 2,620,825
2008 8,547,000[67] 8,913,000[67] 5,160,000[67] 2,188,000[67] 2,217,662[68]
Japan production numbers 1937 to 1987.[69]

[edit] Outcomes

Toyota is now the world’s largest automaker in terms of sales, net worth, revenue, and profits. According to Stephen Spier, Toyota has been an industry leader since the 1960s and has consistently been more productive than its competitors. The company has been widely recognized for the quality of its products and production systems.

[edit] Environmental record

The Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) implemented its Fourth Environmental Action Plan in 2005. The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporation's development, design, production, and sales. The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling-based society."[70] Toyota had previously released its Eco-Vehicle Assessment System (Eco-VAS) which is a systematic life cycle assessment of the effect a vehicle will have on the environment including production, usage, and disposal. The assessment includes, "... fuel efficiency, emissions and noise during vehicle use, the disposal recovery rate, the reduction of substances of environmental concern, and CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the vehicle from production to disposal."[71] 2008 marks the ninth year for Toyota's Environmental Activities Grant Program which has been implemented every year since 2000. Themes of the 2008 program consist of "Global Warming Countermeasures" and "Biodiversity Conservation."[72]
Since October 2006, Toyota's new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. Individual results vary depending on traffic issues, starting and stopping the vehicle, and total distance traveled, but the Eco Drive Indicator may improve fuel efficiency by as much as 4%.[73] Along with Toyota's eco-friendly objectives on production and use, the company plans to donate $1 million and five vehicles to the Everglades National Park. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. This donation is part of a program which provides $5 million and 23 vehicles for five national parks and the National Parks Foundation.[74] However new figures from the United States National Research Council show that the continuing hidden health costs of the auto industry to the US economy in 2005 amounted to 56 million US dollars.[75]
The United States EPA has awarded Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc (TEMA) with a ENERGY STAR Sustained Excellence Award in 2007, 2008 and 2009 [76][77][78]
In 2007, Toyota's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) fleet average of 26.69 mpg-US (8.813 L/100 km; 32.05 mpg-imp) exceeded all other major manufactures selling cars within the United States. Only Lotus Cars which sold the Elise and Exige powered by Toyota's 2ZZ-GE engine did better with an average of 30.2 mpg-US (7.79 L/100 km; 36.3 mpg-imp).[79]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

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  2. ^ a b c d e FY2009 Financial Results
  3. ^ TOYOTA: Company > Company Profile
  4. ^ G.M. Says Toyota Has Lead in Global Sales Race - New York Times
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  10. ^ Dawson, Chester (2004). "Lexus: The Relentless Pursuit", Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2004, ISBN 0470821108, p12.
  11. ^ Crown motors HK
  12. ^ Toyota China
  13. ^ Toyota archives (English)(Japanese)
  14. ^ "Toyota: A history of the First 50 Years", Toyota Motor Corporation, 1988, ISBN 0-517-61777-3, p102.
  15. ^ "Toyota Truck 48HP", Toyota brochure No. 228, Japan
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  19. ^ Ex-UFJ Execs.Japan Times Weekly: April 30, 2005.
  20. ^ UFJ Holdings Inc., company profile Yahoo Finance. Retrieved on May 8, 2007.
  21. ^ "Forbes Global 2000". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/results.jhtml?passListId=18&passYear=2004&passListType=Company&searchParameter1=unset&searchParameter2=unset&resultsStart=1&resultsHowMany=100&resultsSortProperties=%2Bnumberfield1%2C%2Bstringfield2&resultsSortCategoryName=rank&passKeyword=&category1=category&category2=category&fromColumnClick=true. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
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  23. ^ http://www2.toyota.co.jp/en/vision/traditions/nov_dec_04.html
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  27. ^ Consumer reports lists Toyota as having the most reliable cars
  28. ^ Toyota's plan for Lexus is a reminder of its real goal (August 1, 2005). Financial Times, p. 16.
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