「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2016年3月22日 星期二

讀"德國雞蛋" 想到 Dr. Deming的雞蛋標日期故事;雞蛋要不要進冰箱,見仁見智,重點是整個過程要"一致"

讀下文"德國雞蛋"
想到Dr. Deming的雞蛋標日期故事
昔日Dr. Deming 從超市買雞蛋放進冰箱前先將每顆雞蛋標上日期
以利其先進先出
Dr. Deming 是少數關心標準化的人
如果他知道德國這套標示雞蛋系統
不知有何感想

******2010.10.19

德國雞蛋
欣賞德國人這種穩健、確實、負責的精神 !
這盒小小的德國雞蛋裏 隱藏多少秘密?
雞蛋在當代社會中,可以說幾乎成了必需品了。早餐吃個雞蛋,補充下營養,恐怕是很多人的選擇吧。
那麼對於這麼一個不能存放太久,需要保持新鮮 的社會重要商品來說,德國人又是怎麼管理它的呢?
cid:1.1143008868@web72408.mail.tp2.yahoo.com
必須 首先說明的是,我在德國沒有見過散裝雞蛋,最多時我見過30個一盒的。而通常在超市里,基本都是6個或10個一盒。
大家不要小看這麼一盒 雞蛋,在上面可是有很多的秘密等著你去發掘呢!下面以我購買的雞蛋為例,讓大家看看德國人到底是怎麼個嚴謹法!
cid:2.1143008868@web72408.mail.tp2.yahoo.com
盒子 上的白色標籤:
最上面標明雞蛋食用時間到126日止;
左下標明需要在5度到8度之間存放;
右下標出雞蛋大小為“L”, 表示“大”,如果是“M”表示“中”;
比較有意思的是,一盒標有中號的雞蛋和一盒大號雞蛋價格是一樣的。
cid:3.1143008868@web72408.mail.tp2.yahoo.com
最有意思的是,盒中每一個雞蛋都標有號碼,如下圖的“3-NL4329801
這是啥意思呢?如果是什麼產品批號也就罷了,恐怕一般老百姓也就不求甚解。
可德國人偏偏在 盒子的側面,非常詳盡的對它進行瞭解釋。這麼一解釋才讓我發現了德國人的牛逼之處!


cid:4.1143008868@web72408.mail.tp2.yahoo.com
雞蛋盒側面對號碼的注解:
大體翻譯一下:
1位元號碼表示雞的飼養方式。
“0”是BIO綠色雞蛋,表明下這種蛋的母雞生活在大自然環境中,沒有固定的雞舍,自由覓食,吃個蟲子啥的,飼料裏沒有任何化學添加劑,除了生病平時不打預防針。
“1”FREILANDHALTUNG是表明下蛋的母雞是露天飼養場放養的,除了自由覓食外還添加人工飼料,要定期打預防針,有固定雞舍。
“2”BODENHALTUNG表明蛋是圈養母雞生的,這種母雞還算“幸運”,它們的生活環境起碼比較寬鬆。
“3”KAEFIGHALTUNG則表明產蛋的是飼養在籠子中的母雞,它們的生長環境最差,一層層的雞籠 怳擰祣翩A這樣的環境下生活,雞的心情可想而知。
德國人其實很明白,自由放養,日日歌唱的雞和備受壓抑整日擠在一起的雞下的蛋是不一樣的!如今在銷售的雞蛋上表明身份,價格當然有貴有賤,大家看的清楚,吃的明白。如上圖我買的雞蛋首位數字是3,表明這是待遇最差的雞下的蛋啦!

2-3
位元元字母表明產地,BE是比利時,DE代表德國,DK是丹麥,FR是法國,NL為荷蘭。

4-10
位號碼表明產蛋企業以及飼養籠子的號碼。有了這些編碼,雞蛋品質只要有半點問題,食品監測部門就會順藤摸瓜,一直追查到生產商!

德國人向來以嚴謹著稱,各方面安全意識非常強,在食品安全問題上更是一絲不苟。大家從這個小小的雞蛋裏,多少就能看出些端倪吧!

*****2016.3.23
雞蛋要不要進冰箱,見仁見智,重點是整個過程要"一致"

EATING AND HEALTH

Why The U.S. Chills Its Eggs And Most Of The World Doesn't

To refrigerate or not to refrigerate? It boils down to bacteria, aesthetics and how much energy you're willing to use.
To refrigerate or not to refrigerate? It boils down to bacteria, aesthetics and how much energy you're willing to use.
Robert S. Donovan; Flickr / Alex Barth; Flickr
Go in search of eggs in most foreign countries and you might encounter a strange scene: eggs on a shelf or out in the open air, nowhere near a refrigerator.
Shock and confusion may ensue. What are they doing there? And are they safe to eat?
We Americans, along with the Japanese, Australians and Scandinavians, tend to be squeamish about our chicken eggs, so we bathe them and then have to refrigerate them.
But we're oddballs. Most other countries don't mind letting unwashed eggs sit next to bread or onions.
The difference boils down to two key things: how to go after bacteria that could contaminate them, and how much energy we're willing to use in the name of safe eggs.
To understand when the rift happened, let's rewind. About a hundred years ago, many people around the world washed their eggs. But there are a lot of ways to do it wrong, so the method got a bad reputation in certain parts of the world. A batch of rotten eggs, which had been washed in Australia, left a bad impression on its British importers.
By 1970, the U.S. Department of Agriculture had perfected the art of the wash with the help of fancy machines, and it required all egg producers to do it. Meanwhile, many European countries were prohibiting washing, and Asian countries never got on board with it. The exception was Japan, which joined the egg-washers after a bad spate of salmonella in the 1990s.
So what's the deal with washing and refrigeration? Soon after eggs pop out of the chicken, American producers put them straight to a machine that shampoos them withsoap and hot water. The steamy shower leaves the shells squeaky clean. But it also compromises them, by washing away a barely visible sheen that naturally envelops each egg.
"The egg is a marvel in terms of protecting itself, and one of the protections is this coating, which prevents them from being porous," says food writer Michael Ruhlman,author of Egg: A Culinary Exploration of the World's Most Versatile Ingredient.
The coating is like a little safety vest for the egg, keeping water and oxygen in and bad bacteria out. Washing can damage that layer and "increase the chances for bacterial invasion" into pores or hairline cracks in the shell, according to Yi Chen, a food scientist at Purdue University. So we spray eggs with oil to prevent bacteria from getting in, and refrigerate them to keep microorganisms at bay.
Why go to the trouble of washing eggs? A lot of it has to do with fear of salmonella.
"It just sort of seeped into our culture that chickens are dirty, or crawling with bacteria," says Ruhlman. (The Saltstumbled into this when our post started a #chickens*$!storm.)
Salmonella enteritidis can infect a chicken's ovaries, contaminating a yolk before the shell firms up around it. Cooking usually kills the bacteria before they can harm you; still, eggs contaminated with salmonella are responsible for about 142,000 illnesses a year in the U.S., according to the Food and Drug Administration.
In some European countries, egg-laying hens are vaccinated against salmonella. In the U.S., vaccination is not required, but eggs must be washed and refrigerated from farm to store, and producers must follow a host of other safety measures.
"They're different approaches to basically achieve the same result," says Vincent Guyonnet, a poultry veterinarian and scientific adviser to the International Egg Commission. "We don't have massive [food safety] issues on either side of the Atlantic. Both methods seem to work."
The important thing, he says, is to be consistent.
"Once you start refrigeration, you have to have it through the whole value chain, from farm to store. Because if you stop — if the eggs are cold and you put them in a warm environment — they're going to start sweating," says Guyonnet.
No one wants sweaty eggs. They can get moldy. Another perk of consistent refrigeration is shelf life: It jumps from about 21 days to almost 50 days.
In a lot of countries, constant refrigeration just isn't possible because it's simply too costly.
"Some of the countries cannot afford cold storage during the whole supply chain," says Chen.
And as for why the U.S. and Europe developed such different attitudes about washing, it's also hard to tease apart how much is about safety versus egg aesthetics.
"In North America, we like to have everything superclean. So they probably initiated the washing of the egg very early on," leading down the refrigeration path, says Guyonnet.
But in a lot of places, "a dirty egg with poop on it is no big deal. You brush it off when you get home," says Guyonnet, who was raised in France and now lives in Canada.
A 38-country survey by the International Egg Commission found that people feel strongly about how their eggs should look. The Irish, French, Czechs, Hungarians, Portuguese, Nigerians and Brits hanker for brown eggs. Canadians, Finns, Americans and Indians prefer white shells. Dutchmen and Argentines don't seem to care.

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