Quality is still free by Philip Crosby 【熱愛品質】彭淮棟譯，台北：華人戴明學院， 1998
參考：Philip B. Crosby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(法) Jean-Marie Gogue 介紹 (美) Philip Crosby, (1926 – 2001)
Philip Crosby (菲利普·克羅斯比，暱稱菲爾·克羅斯比 )先生
By 作者：Jean-Marie Gogue (讓 - 馬里·Gogue)
For ten years, Phil Crosby was the quality manager of the multinational firm ITT (International Telegraph and Telephone) with headquarters in New York, and 69 subsidiaries worldwide. At that time, I was the quality manager of the French firm LMT (le matériel téléphonique), a major subsidiary. So Phil Crosby was my superior, and we were good friends.
菲爾·克羅斯比先生在跨國公司ITT（國際電報電話公司，總部設在紐約，全球有69家分公司）服務十年來，職位是的品質總經理。在那段期間，我是ITT 的主要分公司法國LMT（le matériel téléphonique）公司的品質經理一個。所以說，菲爾·克羅斯比是我的上司，我們是好朋友。
When Phil Crosby arrived at ITT, the quality inspection departments used a standard that was very expensive and let pass many flaws. Each year it was a waste that costed the firm millions of dollars. He first convinced the president that it was possible to improve quality by trusting the staff. Then he distributed documents to explain to the whole staff that the firm could lose customers if they continued to produce defective parts. He explained that the final inspection was not effective and that the only way to achieve the quality required by the customer was : Do it right the first time.
菲爾·克羅斯比剛到ITT公司任職時，該公司檢驗(質檢)部門所使用的那套"標準"做法，既非常昂貴，又會讓許多有缺陷的產品流出去。這樣每年造成公司數以百萬美元計的浪費。他首先說服總經理，通過"信任員工"的做法，就可以讓產品品質提高。然後他發給全體幹部、員工文件，解釋說，如果該公司繼續生產缺陷的部件，客戶們會轉向別人去買。他解釋說，靠最終檢驗來品管是無效的，要達到客戶所要求的品質，唯一的辦法就是：在第一次/第一時間就做好 Do it right the first time.。
It was not a simple campaign of motivation because it offered managers a quality improvement method that involved four steps. Step N°1 : Make clear to everybody that top management admits no compromise on quality. Step N°2 : Measure the quality. Step N°3 : Initiate corrective actions. Step N°4 : Measure the results. He gave it a name that became famous all over the world: Zero Defect Program.
Phil Crosby was a good organizer. His first care was to detect experienced engineers and place them directly under the General manager of the subsidiary. Then he taught them how to use the language of finance in the steering committee and explain their mission. It was necessary to have true professionals in this job. And in order to give them a team spirit, he created Quality Councils in North America, Latin America, Europe and Asia.
Phil Crosby left ITT in 1979 to found the consulting firm : Philip Crosby Associates. He taught his clients worldwide the method for preventing defects that had been so successful in ITT. Deming and Juran have never met him, but I know that they held him in high esteem.
Philip Crosby, 75, Developer Of the Zero-Defects Concept
By WOLFGANG SAXON
Published: August 22, 2001
Philip Bayard Crosby, a onetime assembly line worker who became an entrepreneur spreading the gospel of quality control in manufacturing, died on Sunday at a hospital in Asheville, N.C.
He was 75 and lived in Winter Park, Fla., with a summer home in the North Carolina mountains.
The cause was respiratory failure, according to Philip Crosby Associates II, a worldwide consulting and educational company based in Winter Park.
Mr. Crosby was credited with developing the concept of zero defects, which emphasizes customer satisfaction as a measure of quality control. He also taught methods for eliminating the causes of defects before a defective product reached the customer.
Among his clients were General Motors, Chrysler, Motorola, Xerox and many hospitals.
Mr. Crosby introduced the concept of zero defects in the 1950's, and it was embraced as a crucial change in the approach to industrial quality control. Quality, he preached, is a question of expectations. If people are expected to make mistakes, they will. But if the goal of no defects is set from the start, people will work toward that goal and quality will improve.
Mr. Crosby, Armand V. Feigenbaum, W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran were often grouped as the nation's leading consultants on quality assurance.
Mr. Crosby advised corporations on how to improve efficiency, reliability and profitability. His company also organized what he called his Quality College, which trained managers in 20 countries.
He explained his concepts in speeches and seminars worldwide. He wrote hundreds of articles and more than a dozen books, most of which remain in print.
His first book, ''Quality is Free'' (1977), drew attention to his management principles; the book was translated into 15 languages and sold more than 1.5 million copies. His last book was an autobiography, ''Quality and Me: Lessons From an Evolving Life'' (1999).
Philip Crosby was born in Wheeling, W.Va. He attended what is now Case Western Reserve University, received a degree in foot surgery at the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine in 1949 and served in the Navy as a hospital corpsman.
After starting on the assembly line, he won quick promotions and by 1957 was named quality manager at the Martin Marietta plant in Orlando, Fla. From 1965 to 1979 he was a vice president at International Telephone and Telegraph, a position he made into a platform for his basic message: Get things done right the first time -- it is better business and cheaper in the long run.
He left in 1979 to found his own business. He served as president of the American Society for Quality in 1979-80.
His books in print include ''Leading: The Art of Becoming an Executive'' (1999), ''Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management'' (1984) and ''Running Things: The Art of Making Things Happen'' (1986).
Mr. Crosby is survived by his wife, Peggy Davis Crosby; a son, Philip Jr., of Hot Springs, N.C.; two daughters, Phylis Crosby-Wright, of Greenback, Tenn., and Leyla Crosby, of Oviedo, Fla; a brother, David, of Glen Ellyn, Ill.; and six grandchildren. His earlier marriage to Shirley Jones ended in divorce.
Photo: Philip Bayard Crosby