Fabrizio Costantini for The New York Times
該報告由美國前檢察官安東·R·沃盧卡斯(Anton R. Valukas)撰寫，導致了15名通用員工被開除，其中包括負責法規事務的副總裁和一名負責產品責任案件的資深律師，並迫使該公司對車輛安全的處理做出了廣泛的變革。
在底特律郊區沃倫的一座規模龐大的通用技術中心，久經磨練的通用首席執行官瑪麗·T·芭拉(Mary T. Barra)在一場會議上對一千多名員工說，這份報告「極其棘手」。
不過，芭拉承認，由於賠償專家肯尼斯·R·范伯格(Kenneth R. Feinberg)在為事故受害者及其家人準備一份關於通用如何進行賠償的資料，在接下里的幾周，死傷事故和碰撞事故的累計數量可能還會增加。
據一名了解此次裁員行動的人士透露，被裁員的有負責全球法規事務的副總裁邁克爾·J·魯濱遜(Michael J. Robinson)和負責產品相關訴訟的高級律師威廉·肯普(William Kemp)。
被解僱員工中還包括兩名安全主管蓋伊·肯特(Gay Kent)和卡門·貝納維德斯(Carmen Benavides)，以及兩名中層工程師雷蒙德·德喬治(Raymond DeGiorgio)和加里·阿爾特曼(Gary Altman)。此前，這兩名工程師均因早期疏於解決這個開關問題而被停職。
2004年，坎迪絲·安德森(Candice Anderson)開着一輛安裝了有缺陷開關的土星Ion在德克薩斯州發生撞車，男友吉恩·埃里克森(Gene Erickson)喪命。
「我不確定能不能相信通用汽車會對自己進行徹底的內部調查，」勞拉·克里斯蒂安(Laura Christian)說，「我希望司法部(Department of Justice)能揭開所有真相。」2005年，她的孩子在一輛Cobalt里遇難。
通用汽車還面臨著司法部、證券交易委員會(Securities and Exchange Commission)以及一個由州檢察長組成的組織的調查。
G.M. Inquiry Cites Years of Neglect Over Fatal Defect
June 06, 2014
WARREN, Mich. — A sweeping internal investigation of General Motors released on Thursday condemned the company for its decade-long failure to fix a deadly safety defect, one that led to “devastating consequences,” including at least 13 deaths.
The report, written by the former United States attorney Anton R. Valukas, set off the dismissal of 15 G.M. employees, including a vice president for regulatory affairs and a senior lawyer responsible for product liability cases, and forced broad changes in how the company handles vehicle safety.
ReutersThe General Motors chief executive, Mary T. Barra, presents the findings of an internal investigation into the company’s faulty ignition switches.
The report illustrates in unsparing detail how employees across departments neglected for years to repair a defect and issue a recall, despite a mountain of evidence that lives were at risk.
“Although everyone had responsibility to fix the problem, nobody took responsibility,” Mr. Valukas wrote.
A chastened Mary T. Barra, G.M.’s chief executive, described the report as “deeply troubling” in a meeting with more than 1,000 employees at the company’s sprawling technical center in the Detroit suburb of Warren.
“For those of us who have dedicated our lives to this company, it is enormously painful to have our shortcomings laid out so vividly,” said Ms. Barra, who has worked at G.M. for more than 30 years. “I was deeply saddened and disturbed as I read the report.”
Yet the report cleared Ms. Barra and her top lieutenants, like Michael Millikin, the general counsel, of any wrongdoing in the long-delayed recall. And there was no evidence of a deliberate cover-up of the switch problems, according to Mr. Valukas.
“It seems like the best report money can buy,” said Senator Richard Blumenthal, Democrat of Connecticut, who had been highly critical of Ms. Barra at a hearing in April. “It absolves upper management, denies deliberate wrongdoing and dismisses corporate culpability.”
Mr. Valukas’s three-month investigation included a review of millions of documents and interviews with at least 230 people, many of whom were employees directly involved in G.M.’s failure to fix a faulty ignition switch that could cause vehicles to lose power and deactivate air bags.
Since February, G.M. has recalled 2.6 million Chevrolet Cobalts and other small cars to fix the defect, which the company so far links to 13 deaths and 54 accidents.
But Ms. Barra admitted that the tally of deaths, injuries and crashes could grow in the weeks ahead, as the compensation expert Kenneth R. Feinberg prepares a report on how G.M. will make restitution to accident victims and their families.
Ms. Barra said the company had dismissed 15 employees as a result of the report, and disciplined five others — highly unusual in an industry where such purges have been rare. She declined to provide details about the actions, but said that more than half of those who left the company held senior-level positions.
Among them were Michael J. Robinson, a vice president for global regulatory affairs, and William Kemp, a top lawyer who oversaw product-related litigation, according to a person briefed on the moves.
Those dismissed also included two safety executives, Gay Kent and Carmen Benavides, as well as two midlevel engineers, Raymond DeGiorgio and Gary Altman, both of whom had previously been suspended for neglecting to address the switch problem in its early stages.
“I never want to put this behind us,” Ms. Barra told employees. “I want to keep this painful experience in our collective memories.”
The defective switch — a tiny part hidden inside the steering column of the recalled vehicles — has already taken an immense toll on the company’s finances and reputation.
Since the switch recall, G.M. has issued dozens of additional recalls to fix various problems on vehicles throughout its product lineup. The company has set aside $1.7 billion to pay for the repairs, appointed a new executive to supervise vehicle safety and begun a wide-ranging shake-up of its engineering department.
Still, G.M.’s most delicate task lies ahead — arriving at the exact number of fatalities and injuries caused by the faulty switch, and compensating the victims.
Those decisions, Ms. Barra and another senior executive, Daniel Ammann, told reporters, would be left up to Mr. Feinberg, as well as the amount of money that G.M. would pay for individual deaths and injuries.
Mr. Feinberg said Thursday that he hoped to complete his recommendations for the compensation program within a few weeks, and to be prepared to receive claims from victims and their families in August.
“I have already drafted some preliminary compensation ideas and plan to share them in confidence over the next few weeks with lawyers, public interest groups, G.M. and others interested in the compensation program,” he said.
G.M. has not released the names of any accident victims, citing a desire to protect their privacy. But some family members of victims, as well as people injured in crashes, have spoken out.
Candice Anderson was driving a Saturn Ion equipped with a defective switch in 2004 when it crashed in Texas, killing her boyfriend, Gene Erickson.
Ms. Anderson took a day off work on Thursday to watch Ms. Barra’s remarks on television. “I’m glad they’re taking responsibility,” she said. “They’re saying it was their fault.”
But despite the depth and breadth of Mr. Valukas’s critique of the company, some of G.M.’s critics were not satisfied with the report, or with Ms. Barra’s apologies.
“I’m not sure I can trust G.M. to do a thorough internal investigation of itself,” said Laura Christian, birth mother of Amber Marie Rose, who died in a Cobalt in 2005. “I hope the Department of Justice is able to uncover the entire truth.”
G.M. still faces investigations by the Justice Department, the Securities and Exchange Commission and a group of state attorneys general.Rebecca Ruiz contributed reporting from New York.