Thomas Cole is generally considered America's first important landscape painter. He made his first trip to Europe as an artist in 1829. While in in Italy in 1831-1832, Cole saw and sketched many scenes of circular, ruined towers set in lonely landscapes.
For "Italian Coast Scene with Ruined Tower," Cole set out to fulfill a commission for a scene from Byron's narrative poem, "The Corsair." Encountering difficulties with that subject, he shifted to a different source, Coleridge's introduction to "The Ballad of the Dark Ladie." Neither provided much inspiration; as Cole struggled to bring the painting to completion, he was beset by doubts and his mood became troubled. Cole chose to abandon his poetic sources and made the picture into something purely his own.
Thomas Cole, "Italian Coast Scene with Ruined Tower," 1838, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, Gift of The Circle of the National Gallery of Art
Early 18th century: from French, earlier denoting an association of tenants, based on Middle Low Germankote 'cote'.
同好者組織 A group of people with a shared profession, interests, or acquaintances:she did not normally move in such exalted circles 十九世紀中期通靈者之聚會
seancePronunciation: /ˈseɪɒns/ Pronunciation: /ˈseɪɒ̃s/ Pronunciation: /ˈseɪɑːns/ NOUN A meeting at which people attempt to make contact with the dead, especially through the agency of a medium.Example sentencesOrigin Late 18th century: French séance, from Old French seoir, from Latin sedere 'sit'.
A group of employees who meet regularly to consider ways of resolving problems and improving production in their organization.