「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2009年3月1日 星期日

Dr. Deming on science (partial list)

我在報上讀到潘老師的文章
就草擬此


他們 (Deming和 SHEWHART等等) 是科學家

第 xiii 頁
He received in 1988 the Distinguished Career in Science award from the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Deming received many other awards, including the ...


Practice more exacting than pure science.
第 143 頁
Failure to understand variation in tests delayed some years the science of genetics. Ratios of (eg) tall and dwarf peas varied wildly below and above ...
第 179 頁
(Philip Wylie, "Science has spoiled my supper," Atlantic, April 1954.) With the expansion of industry, this personal touch is easy to lose. ...


可運作之定義和
統計管制控制之觀念亦是經營管理和人生之重要貢獻
第 173 頁
Dr. Shewhart gave to the world new perspective in science and management. It was my good fortune to meet Dr. Shewhart in 1927 and many times thereafter at ...
第 xi 頁
Anyone in management requires, for transformation, some rudimentary knowledge about science — in particular, something about the nature of variation and ...

第 278 頁
Practice is more exacting than pure science ; more exacting than teaching. As Shewhart said, the standards of knowledge and workmanship required in industry ...


第 310 頁
It is essential, however, in industry and in science to understand the distinction between a stable system and an unstable system, and how to plot points ...

第 350 頁
Use of an experiment in industry and in science is for prediction of the results of future experiments. The data of an experiment, emphasized by Shew- hart, ...
第 369 頁
... books that treat confidence intervals and tests of significance, as such calculations have no application in analytic problems in science and industry. ...


合作與學習 創新


「operational definition」的搜尋結果



operational definition」的搜尋結果


教育

他兒子Patrict Nolan 小學時就揚名戴明圈 參考第四代管理新經濟學

第 208 頁
Dr. Thomas W. Nolan came one day to talk with me; brought with him a chart that his boy Patrick had made, then at age 11. ...
第 209 頁
Time of arrival of school bus, by Patrick Nolan, 11. Think what a good start in life Patrick had, understanding common causes and special causes of ...
第 209 頁
This was his science project at school. A good start in life. Some essential theory of variation could obviously be ...



應用科學
第 122 頁
The forces along the top rob people, and the nation, of innovation and applied science. We must replace these forces with management that will ...
第 123 頁
The result will in time be greater innovation, applied science, technology, expansion of market, greater service, greater material reward for everyone. ...

第 465 頁
Excepting in the presence of active research in a pure science, the applications of the science tend to drop into a deadly rut of unthinking routine, ...

引用

「Rayleigh」的搜尋結果

第 503 頁
Lord Rayleigh, 329 On the resultant of a large number of vibrations, 1899

第 276 頁
Hugh M. Smith, "On the synchronous flashing of fireflies," Science, August 1935. Aim of this chapter. In the opinion of many people in industry, ...



生之理》三談「公民科學素養」

「科學」這個名詞及其內容都是舶來品。現代科學發軔於十六世紀文藝復興時期,至今也不過四百多年歷史。雖說自明代起,就有西方傳教士將科學新知傳入中國,但在清末廢除科舉、開辦新學以前,學子讀的都是四書五經,寫的則是八股的論文,對科學自是一竅不通。

誠然,不懂幾何、代數、微積分等數學,自不代表國人不懂算學;不懂物理工程之學,也不代表中國沒有傲人的建築與工藝產品;不懂解剖生理,中醫一樣給人看 病;不懂生物遺傳原理,農牧業者也能夠育種。問題是,技術不等同科學;科學是客觀的系統之學,不但能解釋既有事實與現象,經得起反覆驗證,還可進一步做出 可靠之推論。如果只有技術但不懂原理,就好比只會修車而不會造車,難以突破創新是必然的結果。

華人社會對知識一向尊重,要求學子專心向學,並非難事。再加上升學主義的推波助瀾,國內學子一般的數理化知識,向來不差。根據2006年經濟合作發展組織 (OECD)的國際學生評量方案(PISA),對五十七個國家地區十五歲學生所做的評量,台灣學子的科學素養排名第四,在芬蘭、香港及加拿大之後,表現相 當優異。

PISA對科學素養的要求,不只是名詞解釋等記誦之學,還要求能活用科學知識,包括發現問題以及從證據中取得結論,從而能夠了解大自然以及由人類活動所引 起的改變,並做出決定。因此,PISA的考題都先有一篇兩三百字的短文,有的還附圖,然後才是一系列簡答題或是非題,共有一○八題之多。這個考試與美國國 家基金會用來評估成年人科學素養的是非題相比,難度高多了;美國學子的PISA成績位於正中,不算出色。

PISA的考試方式並非創新,但可看出科學素養講究的不是你記得多少科學知識,而是活用這份知識的能力。美國密西根州立大學的米勒教授提過另一個評估公民 科學素養的簡單方法,就是:「能夠閱讀《紐約時報》每周二出刊的科學版,那可是世界一流的科學寫作。」我想這才是重點所在。

絕大多數人在出校門後,不會吃科學這行飯,但生活裡卻不可能不與科學沾點邊,尤其是許多切身的議題,像能源危機、地球暖化、幹細胞研究、基因篩檢、藥物殘 留等,都與科學有關;能夠理解報章雜誌的科學報導,並做出判斷,自然是現代公民應有的本事。現行公民科學素養測驗或許失之過簡,但今日學子是明日棟梁,從 國內學子在PISA測驗的表現來看,國內科學教育大抵不差,這是科教工作者值得欣慰,並應繼續努力的目標。

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